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    Zaanaim — Ziza


    Zaanaim — wanderings; the unloading of tents, so called probably from the fact of nomads in tents encamping amid the cities and villages of that region, a place in the north-west of Lake Merom, near Kedesh, in Naphtali. Here Sisera was slain by Jael, “the wife of Heber the Kenite,” who had pitched his tent in the “plain [R.V., ‘as far as the oak’] of Zaanaim” (Judges 4:11).ETI Zaanaim.2

    It has been, however, suggested by some that, following the LXX. and the Talmud, the letter b, which in Hebrew means “in,” should be taken as a part of the word following, and the phrase would then be “unto the oak of Bitzanaim,” a place which has been identified with the ruins of Bessum, about half-way between Tiberias and Mount Tabor.ETI Zaanaim.3


    Zaanan — place of flocks, mentioned only in Micah 1:11. It may be identified with Zenan, in the plain country of Judah (Joshua 15:37).ETI Zaanan.2


    Zaanannim — =Zaanaim, (Joshua 19:33).ETI Zaanannim.2


    Zaavan — terror, one of the “dukes of Edom” (Genesis 36:27); called also Zavan (1 Chronicles 1:42).ETI Zaavan.2


    Zabad — gift. (1.) One of David’s valiant men (1 Chronicles 11:41), the descendant of Ahlai, of the “children of Sheshan” (1 Chronicles 2:31).ETI Zabad.2

    (2.) A descendant of Tahath (1 Chronicles 7:21).ETI Zabad.3

    (3.) The son of Shemath. He conspired against Joash, king of Judah, and slew him (2 Chronicles 24:25, 2 Chronicles 24:26). He is called also Jozachar (2 Kings 12:21).ETI Zabad.4

    (4.) Ezra 10:27.ETI Zabad.5

    (5.) Ezra 10:33.ETI Zabad.6

    (6.) Ezra 10:43.ETI Zabad.7


    Zabbai — wanderer; pure. (1.) Ezra 10:28.ETI Zabbai.2

    (2.) The father of Baruch, who “earnestly repaired” part of the wall of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 3:20; marg., “Zaccai”).ETI Zabbai.3


    Zabbud — gift, Ezra 8:14.ETI Zabbud.2


    Zabdi — gift of Jehovah. (1.) An ancestor of Achan (Joshua 7:1, Joshua 7:17, Joshua 7:18). He is probably the “Zimri” of 1 Chronicles 2:6.ETI Zabdi.2

    (2.) A Benjamite (1 Chronicles 8:19).ETI Zabdi.3

    (3.) Called “the Shiphmite,” one of David’s officers, who had charge of his vineyards (1 Chronicles 27:27).ETI Zabdi.4

    (4.) A Levite, one of the sons of Asaph (Nehemiah 11:17); probably the same as Zichri (1 Chronicles 9:15), and Zaccur (Nehemiah 12:35).ETI Zabdi.5


    Zabdiel — gift of God. (1.) The father of Jashobeam, who was one of David’s officers (1 Chronicles 27:2).ETI Zabdiel.2

    (2.) An overseer of the priests after the Captivity (Nehemiah 11:14).ETI Zabdiel.3


    Zabud — gift, the son of Nathan, who was “king’s friend” in the court of Solomon (1 Kings 4:5).ETI Zabud.2


    Zabulon — (Matthew 4:13, Matthew 4:15; Revelation 7:8). See ZEBULUN.ETI Zabulon.2


    Zaccai — pure, one whose “sons” returned with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:9; Nehemiah 7:14). (See ZABBAI.)ETI Zaccai.2


    Zacchaeus — pure, a superintendant of customs; a chief tax-gather (publicanus) at Jericho (Luke 19:1-10). “The collection of customs at Jericho, which at this time produced and exported a considerable quantity of balsam, was undoubtedly an important post, and would account for Zacchaeus being a rich man.” Being short of stature, he hastened on before the multitude who were thronging about Christ as he passed through Jericho on his way to Jerusalem, and climbed up a sycamore tree that he might be able to see him. When our Lord reached the spot he looked up to the publican among the branches, and addressing him by name, told him to make haste and come down, as he intended that day to abide at his house. This led to the remarkable interview recorded by the evangelist, and to the striking parable of the ten pounds (Luke 19:12-27). At Er-riha (Jericho) there is a large, venerable looking square tower, which goes by the traditional name of the House of Zacchaeus.ETI Zacchaeus.2


    Zaccur — mindful. (1.) Father of Shammua, who was one of the spies sent out by Moses (Numbers 13:4).ETI Zaccur.2

    (2.) A Merarite Levite (1 Chronicles 24:27).ETI Zaccur.3

    (3.) A son of Asaph, and chief of one of the courses of singers as arranged by David (1 Chronicles 25:2, 1 Chronicles 25:10).ETI Zaccur.4

    (4.) Son of Imri (Nehemiah 3:2).ETI Zaccur.5

    (5.) A Levite (Nehemiah 10:12).ETI Zaccur.6

    (6.) The son of Mattaniah (Nehemiah 13:13).ETI Zaccur.7


    Zachariah — remembered by the Lord. (1.) Son of Jeroboam II., king of Israel. On the death of his father there was an interregnum of ten years, at the end of which he succeeded to the throne, which he occupied only six months, having been put to death by Shallum, who usurped the throne. “He did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, as his fathers had done” (2 Kings 14:29; 2 Kings 15:8-12). In him the dynasty of Jehu came to an end.ETI Zachariah.2

    (2.) The father of Abi, who was the mother of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:2).ETI Zachariah.3


    Zacharias — (1.) A priest of the course of Abia, the eighth of the twenty-four courses into which the priests had been originally divided by David (1 Chronicles 23:1-19). Only four of these courses or “families” of the priests returned from the Exile (Ezra 2:36-39); but they were then re-distributed under the old designations. The priests served at the temple twice each year, and only for a week each time. Zacharias’s time had come for this service. During this period his home would be one of the chambers set apart for the priests on the sides of the temple ground. The offering of incense was one of the most solemn parts of the daily worship of the temple, and lots were drawn each day to determine who should have this great honour, an honour which no priest could enjoy more than once during his lifetime.ETI Zacharias.2

    While Zacharias ministered at the golden altar of incense in the holy place, it was announced to him by the angel Gabriel that his wife Elisabeth, who was also of a priestly family, now stricken in years, would give birth to a son who was to be called John, and that he would be the forerunner of the long-expected Messiah (Luke 1:12-17). As a punishment for his refusing to believe this message, he was struck dumb and “not able to speak until the day that these things should be performed” (Luke 1:20). Nine months passed away, and Elisabeth’s child was born, and when in answer to their inquiry Zacharias wrote on a “writing tablet,” “His name is John,” his mouth was opened, and he praised God (Luke 1:60-79). The child (John the Baptist), thus “born out of due time,” “waxed strong in spirit” (Luke 1:80).ETI Zacharias.3

    (2.) The “son of Barachias,” mentioned as having been slain between the temple and the altar (Matthew 23:35; Luke 11:51). “Barachias” here may be another name for Jehoiada, as some think. (See ZECHARIAH.)ETI Zacharias.4


    Zacher — memorial, a son of Jehiel (1 Chronicles 8:31; 1 Chronicles 9:35); called Zechariah (1 Chronicles 9:37).ETI Zacher.2


    Zadok — righteous. (1.) A son of Ahitub, of the line of Eleazer (2 Samuel 8:17; 1 Chronicles 24:3), high priest in the time of David (2 Samuel 20:25) and Solomon (1 Kings 4:4). He is first mentioned as coming to take part with David at Hebron (1 Chronicles 12:27, 1 Chronicles 12:28). He was probably on this account made ruler over the Aaronites (1 Chronicles 27:17). Zadok and Abiathar acted as high priests on several important occasions (1 Chronicles 15:11; 2 Samuel 15:24-29, 2 Samuel 15:35, 2 Samuel 15:36); but when Adonijah endeavoured to secure the throne, Abiathar went with him, and therefore Solomon “thrust him out from being high priest,” and Zadok, remaining faithful to David, became high priest alone (1 Kings 2:27, 1 Kings 2:35; 1 Chronicles 29:22). In him the line of Phinehas resumed the dignity, and held it till the fall of Jerusalem. He was succeeded in his sacred office by his son Azariah (1 Kings 4:2; comp. 1 Chronicles 6:3-9).ETI Zadok.2

    (2.) The father of Jerusha, who was wife of King Uzziah, and mother of King Jotham (2 Kings 15:33; 2 Chronicles 27:1).ETI Zadok.3

    (3.) “The scribe” set over the treasuries of the temple by Nehemiah along with a priest and a Levite (Nehemiah 13:13).ETI Zadok.4

    (4.) The sons of Baana, one of those who assisted in rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 3:4).ETI Zadok.5


    Zair — little, a place probably east of the Dead Sea, where Joram discomfited the host of Edom who had revolted from him (2 Kings 8:21).ETI Zair.2


    Zalmon — shady. (1.) One of David’s warriors, called the Ahohite (2 Samuel 23:28); called also Ilai (1 Chronicles 11:29).ETI Zalmon.2

    (2.) A wood near Shechem, from which Abimelech and his party brought boughs and “put them to the hold” of Shechem, “and set the hold on fire” (Judges 9:48). Probably the southern peak of Gerizim, now called Jebel Sulman. (See SALMON.)ETI Zalmon.3


    Zalmonah — shady, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Numbers 33:41, Numbers 33:42).ETI Zalmonah.2


    Zalmunna — one of the two kings of Midian whom the “Lord delivered” into the hands of Gideon. He was slain afterwards with Zebah (Judges 8:5-21). (See ZEBAH.)ETI Zalmunna.2


    Zamzummims — a race of giants; “a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims” (Deuteronomy 2:20, Deuteronomy 2:21). They were overcome by the Ammonites, “who called them Zamzummims.” They belonged to the Rephaim, and inhabited the country afterwards occupied by the Ammonites. It has been conjectured that they might be Ham-zuzims, i.e., Zuzims dwelling in Ham, a place apparently to the south of Ashteroth (Genesis 14:5), the ancient Rabbath-ammon.ETI Zamzummims.2


    Zanoah — marsh. (1.) A town in the low country or shephelah of Judah, near Zorah (Joshua 15:34). It was re-occupied after the return from the Captivity (Nehemiah 11:30). Zanu’ah in Wady Ismail, 10 miles west of Jerusalem, occupies probably the same site.ETI Zanoah.2

    (2.) A town in the hill country of Judah, some 10 miles to the south-west of Hebron (Joshua 15:56).ETI Zanoah.3


    Zaphnath-paaneah — the name which Pharaoh gave to Joseph when he raised him to the rank of prime minister or grand vizier of the kingdom (Genesis 41:45). This is a pure Egyptian word, and has been variously explained. Some think it means “creator,” or “preserver of life.” Brugsch interprets it as “governor of the district of the place of life”, i.e., of Goshen, the chief city of which was Pithom, “the place of life.” Others explain it as meaning “a revealer of secrets,” or “the man to whom secrets are revealed.”ETI Zaphnath-paaneah.2


    Zarephath — smelting-shop, “a workshop for the refining and smelting of metals”, a small Phoenician town, now Surafend, about a mile from the coast, almost midway on the road between Tyre and Sidon. Here Elijah sojourned with a poor widow during the “great famine,” when the “heaven was shut up three years and six months” (Luke 4:26; 1 Kings 17:10). It is called Sarepta in the New Testament (Luke 4:26).ETI Zarephath.2


    Zaretan — When the Hebrews crossed the Jordan, as soon as the feet of the priests were dipped in the water, the flow of the stream was arrested. The point of arrest was the “city of Adam beside Zaretan,” probably near Succoth, at the mouth of the Jabbok, some 30 miles up the river from where the people were encamped. There the water “stood and rose upon an heap.” Thus the whole space of 30 miles of the river-bed was dry, that the tribes might pass over (Joshua 3:16, Joshua 3:17; comp. Psalm 104:3).ETI Zaretan.2


    Zareth-shahar — the splendour of the dawn, a city “in the mount of the valley” (Joshua 13:19). It is identified with the ruins of Zara, near the mouth of the Wady Zerka Main, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea, some 3 miles south of the Callirrhoe. Of this town but little remains. “A few broken basaltic columns and pieces of wall about 200 yards back from the shore, and a ruined fort rather nearer the sea, about the middle of the coast line of the plain, are all that are left” (Tristram’s Land of Moab).ETI Zareth-shahar.2


    Zarthan — a place near Succoth, in the plain of the Jordan, “in the clay ground,” near which Hiram cast the brazen utensils for the temple (1 Kings 7:46); probably the same as Zartan. It is also called Zeredathah (2 Chronicles 4:17). (See ZEREDA.)ETI Zarthan.2


    Zatthu — a sprout, Nehemiah 10:14.ETI Zatthu.2


    Zattu — id., one whose descendants returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:8; Nehemiah 7:13); probably the same as Zatthu.ETI Zattu.2


    Zaza — plenty, a descendant of Judah (1 Chronicles 2:33).ETI Zaza.2


    Zeal — an earnest temper; may be enlightened (Numbers 25:11-13; 2 Corinthians 7:11; 2 Corinthians 9:2), or ignorant and misdirected (Romans 10:2; Philippians 3:6). As a Christian grace, it must be grounded on right principles and directed to right ends (Galatians 4:18). It is sometimes ascribed to God (2 Kings 19:31; Isaiah 9:7; Isaiah 37:32; Ezekiel 5:13).ETI Zeal.2


    Zealots — a sect of Jews which originated with Judas the Gaulonite (Acts 5:37). They refused to pay tribute to the Romans, on the ground that this was a violation of the principle that God was the only king of Israel. They rebelled against the Romans, but were soon scattered, and became a lawless band of mere brigands. They were afterwards called Sicarii, from their use of the sica, i.e., the Roman dagger.ETI Zealots.2


    Zebadiah — gift of Jehovah. (1.) A son of Asahel, Joab’s brother (1 Chronicles 27:7).ETI Zebadiah.2

    (2.) A Levite who took part as one of the teachers in the system of national education instituted by Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 17:7, 2 Chronicles 17:8).ETI Zebadiah.3

    (3.) The son of Ishmael, “the ruler of the house of Judah in all the king’s matters” (2 Chronicles 19:8-11).ETI Zebadiah.4

    (4.) A son of Beriah (1 Chronicles 8:15).ETI Zebadiah.5

    (5.) A Korhite porter of the Lord’s house (1 Chronicles 26:2). Three or four others of this name are also mentioned.ETI Zebadiah.6


    Zebah — man-killer, or sacrifice, one of the two kings who led the vast host of the Midianites who invaded the land of Israel, and over whom Gideon gained a great and decisive victory (Judges 8). Zebah and Zalmunna had succeeded in escaping across the Jordan with a remnant of the Midianite host, but were overtaken at Karkor, probably in the Hauran, and routed by Gideon. The kings were taken alive and brought back across the Jordan; and confessing that they had personally taken part in the slaughter of Gideon’s brothers, they were put to death (comp. 1 Samuel 12:11; Isaiah 10:26; Psalm 83:11).ETI Zebah.2


    Zebaim — (Ezra 2:57; Nehemiah 7:59). “Pochereth of Zebaim” should be read as in the Revised Version, “Pochereth-hazzebaim” (“snaring the antelopes”), probably the name of some hunter.ETI Zebaim.2


    Zebedee — a Galilean fisherman, the husband of Salome (q.v.), and the father of James and John, two of our Lord’s disciples (Matthew 4:21; Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40). He seems to have been a man of some position in Capernaum, for he had two boats (Luke 5:4) and “hired servants” (Mark 1:20) of his own. No mention is made of him after the call of his two sons by Jesus.ETI Zebedee.2


    Zeboim — gazelles or roes. (1.) One of the “five cities of the plain” of Sodom, generally coupled with Admah (Genesis 10:19; Genesis 14:2; Deuteronomy 29:23; Hosea 11:8). It had a king of its own (Shemeber), and was therefore a place of some importance. It was destroyed along with the other cities of the plain.ETI Zeboim.2

    (2.) A valley or rugged glen somewhere near Gibeah in Benjamin (1 Samuel 13:18). It was probably the ravine now bearing the name Wady Shakh-ed-Dub’a, or “ravine of the hyena,” north of Jericho.ETI Zeboim.3

    (3.) A place mentioned only in Nehemiah 11:34, inhabited by the Benjamites after the Captivity.ETI Zeboim.4


    Zebudah — given, the wife of Josiah and mother of Jehoiakim (2 Kings 23:36).ETI Zebudah.2


    Zebul — habitation, the governor of Shechem under Abimelech (Judges 9:28, Judges 9:30, Judges 9:36). He informed his master of the intention of the people of Shechem to transfer their allegiance to the Hivite tribe of Hamor. This led to Abimelech’s destroying the city, when he put its entire population to the sword, and sowed the ruins with salt (Judges 9:28-45).ETI Zebul.2


    Zebulonite — the designation of Elon, the judge who belonged to the tribe of Zebulun (Judges 12:11, Judges 12:12).ETI Zebulonite.2


    Zebulun — dwelling, the sixth and youngest son of Jacob and Leah (Genesis 30:20). Little is known of his personal history. He had three sons (Genesis 46:14).ETI Zebulun.2

    Zebulun, Lot of

    Zebulun, Lot of — in Galilee, to the north of Issachar and south of Asher and Naphtali (Joshua 19:10-16), and between the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean. According to ancient prophecy this part of Galilee enjoyed a large share of our Lord’s public ministry (Isaiah 9:1, Isaiah 9:2; Matthew 4:12-16).ETI Zebulun, Lot of.2

    Zebulun, Tribe of

    Zebulun, Tribe of — numbered at Sinai (Numbers 1:31) and before entering Canaan (Numbers 26:27). It was one of the tribes which did not drive out the Canaanites, but only made them tributary (Judges 1:30). It took little interest in public affairs. It responded, however, readily to the summons of Gideon (Judges 6:35), and afterwards assisted in enthroning David at Hebron (1 Chronicles 12:33, 1 Chronicles 12:40). Along with the other northern tribes, Zebulun was carried away into the land of Assyria by Tiglath-pileser (2 Kings 15:29).ETI Zebulun, Tribe of.2

    In Deborah’s song the words, “Out of Zebulun they that handle the pen of the writer” (Judges 5:14) has been rendered in the R.V., “They that handle the marshal’s staff.” This is a questionable rendering. “The word sopher (‘scribe’ or ‘writer’) defines the word shebhet (‘rod’ or ‘pen’) with which it is conjoined. The ‘rod of the scribe’ on the Assyrian monuments was the stylus of wood or metal, with the help of which the clay tablet was engraved, or the papyrus inscribed with characters. The scribe who wielded it was the associate and assistant of the ‘lawgivers.’” (Sayce).ETI Zebulun, Tribe of.3


    Zechariah — Jehovah is renowned or remembered. (1.) A prophet of Judah, the eleventh of the twelve minor prophets. Like Ezekiel, he was of priestly extraction. He describes himself (Zechariah 1:1) as “the son of Berechiah.” In Ezra 5:1 and Ezra 6:14 he is called “the son of Iddo,” who was properly his grandfather. His prophetical career began in the second year of Darius (B.C. 520), about sixteen years after the return of the first company from exile. He was contemporary with Haggai (Ezra 5:1).ETI Zechariah.2

    His book consists of two distinct parts, (1) chapters 1 to 8, inclusive, and (2) 9 to the end. It begins with a preface (Zechariah 1:1-6), which recalls the nation’s past history, for the purpose of presenting a solemn warning to the present generation. Then follows a series of eight visions (Zechariah 1:7-6:8), succeeding one another in one night, which may be regarded as a symbolical history of Israel, intended to furnish consolation to the returned exiles and stir up hope in their minds. The symbolical action, the crowning of Joshua (Zechariah 6:9-15), describes how the kingdoms of the world become the kingdom of God’s Christ.ETI Zechariah.3

    Chapters Zechariah 7 and Zechariah 8, delivered two years later, are an answer to the question whether the days of mourning for the destruction of the city should be any longer kept, and an encouraging address to the people, assuring them of God’s presence and blessing.ETI Zechariah.4

    The second part of the book (ch. Zechariah 9-14) bears no date. It is probable that a considerable interval separates it from the first part. It consists of two burdens.ETI Zechariah.5

    The first burden (ch. Zechariah 9-11) gives an outline of the course of God’s providential dealings with his people down to the time of the Advent.ETI Zechariah.6

    The second burden (ch. Zechariah 12-14) points out the glories that await Israel in “the latter day”, the final conflict and triumph of God’s kingdom.ETI Zechariah.7

    (2.) The son or grandson of Jehoiada, the high priest in the times of Ahaziah and Joash. After the death of Jehoiada he boldly condemned both the king and the people for their rebellion against God (2 Chronicles 24:20), which so stirred up their resentment against him that at the king’s commandment they stoned him with stones, and he died “in the court of the house of the Lord” (2 Chronicles 24:21). Christ alludes to this deed of murder in Matthew 23:35, Luke 11:51. (See ZACHARIAS [2].)ETI Zechariah.8

    (3.) A prophet, who had “understanding in the seeing of God,” in the time of Uzziah, who was much indebted to him for his wise counsel (2 Chronicles 26:5).ETI Zechariah.9

    Besides these, there is a large number of persons mentioned in Scripture bearing this name of whom nothing is known.ETI Zechariah.10

    (4.) One of the chiefs of the tribe of Reuben (1 Chronicles 5:7).ETI Zechariah.11

    (5.) One of the porters of the tabernacle (1 Chronicles 9:21).ETI Zechariah.12

    (6.) 1 Chronicles 9:37.ETI Zechariah.13

    (7.) A Levite who assisted at the bringing up of the ark from the house of Obededom (1 Chronicles 15:20-24).ETI Zechariah.14

    (8.) A Kohathite Levite (1 Chronicles 24:25).ETI Zechariah.15

    (9.) A Merarite Levite (1 Chronicles 27:21).ETI Zechariah.16

    (10.) The father of Iddo (1 Chronicles 27:21).ETI Zechariah.17

    (11.) One who assisted in teaching the law to the people in the time of Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 17:7).ETI Zechariah.18

    (12.) A Levite of the sons of Asaph (2 Chronicles 20:14).ETI Zechariah.19

    (13.) One of Jehoshaphat’s sons (2 Chronicles 21:2).ETI Zechariah.20

    (14.) The father of Abijah, who was the mother of Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 29:1).ETI Zechariah.21

    (15.) One of the sons of Asaph (2 Chronicles 29:13).ETI Zechariah.22

    (16.) One of the “rulers of the house of God” (2 Chronicles 35:8).ETI Zechariah.23

    (17.) A chief of the people in the time of Ezra, who consulted him about the return from captivity (Ezra 8:16); probably the same as mentioned in Nehemiah 8:4,ETI Zechariah.24

    (18.) Nehemiah 11:12.ETI Zechariah.25

    (19.) Nehemiah 12:16.ETI Zechariah.26

    (20.) Nehemiah 12:35,Nehemiah 12:41.ETI Zechariah.27

    (21.) Isaiah 8:2.ETI Zechariah.28


    Zedad — side; sloping place, a town in the north of Palestine, near Hamath (Numbers 34:8; Ezekiel 47:15). It has been identified with the ruins of Sudud, between Emesa (Hums) and Baalbec, but that is uncertain.ETI Zedad.2


    Zedekiah — righteousness of Jehovah. (1.) The last king of Judah. He was the third son of Josiah, and his mother’s name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, and hence he was the brother of Jehoahaz (2 Kings 23:31; 2 Kings 24:17, 2 Kings 24:18). His original name was Mattaniah; but when Nebuchadnezzar placed him on the throne as the successor to Jehoiachin he changed his name to Zedekiah. The prophet Jeremiah was his counsellor, yet “he did evil in the sight of the Lord” (2 Kings 24:19, 2 Kings 24:20; Jeremiah 52:2, Jeremiah 52:3). He ascended the throne at the age of twenty-one years. The kingdom was at that time tributary to Nebuchadnezzar; but, despite the strong remonstrances of Jeremiah and others, as well as the example of Jehoiachin, he threw off the yoke of Babylon, and entered into an alliance with Hophra, king of Egypt. This brought up Nebuchadnezzar, “with all his host” (), against Jerusalem. During this siege, which lasted about eighteen months, “every worst woe befell the devoted city, which drank the cup of God’s fury to the dregs” (2 Kings 25:3; Lamentations 4:4, Lamentations 4:5, Lamentations 4:10). The city was plundered and laid in ruins. Zedekiah and his followers, attempting to escape, were made captive and taken to Riblah. There, after seeing his own children put to death, his own eyes were put out, and, being loaded with chains, he was carried captive (B.C. 588) to Babylon (2 Kings 25:1-7; 2 Chronicles 36:12; Jeremiah 32:4,Jeremiah 32:5; Jeremiah 34:2, Jeremiah 34:3; Jeremiah 39:1-7; Jeremiah 52:4-11; Ezekiel 12:12), where he remained a prisoner, how long is unknown, to the day of his death.ETI Zedekiah.2

    After the fall of Jerusalem, Nebuzaraddan was sent to carry out its complete destruction. The city was razed to the ground. Only a small number of vinedressers and husbandmen were permitted to remain in the land (Jeremiah 52:16). Gedaliah, with a Chaldean guard stationed at Mizpah, ruled over Judah (2 Kings 25:22, 2 Kings 25:24; Jer. Jeremiah 40:1, Jeremiah 40:2, Jeremiah 40:5, Jeremiah 40:6).ETI Zedekiah.3

    (2.) The son of Chenaanah, a false prophet in the days of Ahab (1 Kings 22:11, 1 Kings 22:24; 2 Chronicles 18:10, 2 Chronicles 18:23).ETI Zedekiah.4

    (3.) The son of Hananiah, a prince of Judah in the days of Jehoiakim (Jeremiah 36:12).ETI Zedekiah.5


    Zeeb — the wolf, one of the two leaders of the great Midianite host which invaded Israel and was utterly routed by Gideon. The division of that host, which attempted to escape across the Jordan, under Oreb and Zeeb, was overtaken by the Ephraimites, who, in a great battle, completely vanquished them, their leaders being taken and slain (Judges 7:25; Psalm 83:11; Isaiah 10:26).ETI Zeeb.2


    Zelah — slope; side, a town in Benjamin, where Saul and his son Jonathan were buried (2 Samuel 21:14). It was probably Saul’s birthplace.ETI Zelah.2


    Zelek — cleft, an Ammonite; one of David’s valiant men (2 Samuel 23:37).ETI Zelek.2


    Zelophehad — first-born, of the tribe of Manasseh, and of the family of Gilead; died in the wilderness. Having left no sons, his daughters, concerned lest their father’s name should be “done away from among his family,” made an appeal to Moses, who, by divine direction, appointed it as “a statute of judgment” in Israel that daughters should inherit their father’s portion when no sons were left (Numbers 27:1-11). But that the possession of Zelophehad might not pass away in the year of jubilee from the tribe to which he belonged, it was ordained by Moses that his daughters should not marry any one out of their father’s tribe; and this afterwards became a general law (Numbers 36).ETI Zelophehad.2


    Zelotes — (Luke 6:15). See SIMON ; ZEALOTS.ETI Zelotes.2


    Zemaraim — (1.) A town of Benjamin (Joshua 18:22); now the ruin, rather two ruins, es-Sumrah, 4 miles north of Jericho.ETI Zemaraim.2

    (2.) A mount in the highlands of Ephraim, to the north of Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 13:4-20). Here the armies of Abijah and Jeroboam engaged in a bloody battle, which issued in the total defeat of the king of Israel, who never “recovered strength again,” and soon after died.ETI Zemaraim.3


    Zemarite — the designation of one of the Phoenician tribes (Genesis 10:18) who inhabited the town of Sumra, at the western base of the Lebanon range. In the Amarna tablets (B.C. 1400) Zemar, or Zumur, was one of the most important of the Phoenician cities, but it afterwards almost disappears from history.ETI Zemarite.2


    Zemira — vine-dresser, a Benjamite; one of the sons of Becher (1 Chronicles 7:8).ETI Zemira.2


    Zenas — a disciple called “the lawyer,” whom Paul wished Titus to bring with him (Titus 3:13). Nothing more is known of him.ETI Zenas.2


    Zephaniah — Jehovah has concealed, or Jehovah of darkness. (1.) The son of Cushi, and great-grandson of Hezekiah, and the ninth in the order of the minor prophets. He prophesied in the days of Josiah, king of Judah (B.C. 641-610), and was contemporary with Jeremiah, with whom he had much in common. The book of his prophecies consists of:ETI Zephaniah.2

    (a) An introduction (Zephaniah 1:1-6), announcing the judgment of the world, and the judgment upon Israel, because of their transgressions.ETI Zephaniah.3

    (b) The description of the judgment (Zephaniah 1:7-18).ETI Zephaniah.4

    (c) An exhortation to seek God while there is still time (Zephaniah 2:1-3).ETI Zephaniah.5

    (d) The announcement of judgment on the heathen (Zephaniah 2:4-15).ETI Zephaniah.6

    (e) The hopeless misery of Jerusalem (Zephaniah 3:1-7).ETI Zephaniah.7

    (f) The promise of salvation (Zephaniah 3:8-20).ETI Zephaniah.8

    (2.) The son of Maaseiah, the “second priest” in the reign of Zedekiah, often mentioned in Jeremiah as having been sent from the king to inquire (Jeremiah 21:1) regarding the coming woes which he had denounced, and to entreat the prophet’s intercession that the judgment threatened might be averted (Jeremiah 29:25, Jeremiah 29:26, Jeremiah 29:29; Jeremiah 37:3; Jeremiah 52:24). He, along with some other captive Jews, was put to death by the king of Babylon “at Riblah in the land of Hamath” (2 Kings 25:21).ETI Zephaniah.9

    (3.) A Kohathite ancestor of the prophet Samuel (1 Chronicles 6:36).ETI Zephaniah.10

    (4.) The father of Josiah, the priest who dwelt in Jerusalem when Darius issued the decree that the temple should be rebuilt (Zechariah 6:10).ETI Zephaniah.11


    Zephath — beacon; watch-tower, a Canaanite town; called also Hormah (q.v.), Judges 1:17. It has been identified with the pass of es-Sufah, but with greater probability with S’beita.ETI Zephath.2


    Zephathah — a valley in the west of Judah, near Mareshah; the scene of Asa’s conflict with Zerah the Ethiopian (2 Chronicles 14:9-13). Identified with the Wady Safieh.ETI Zephathah.2


    Zerah — sunrise. (1.) An “Ethiopian,” probably Osorkon II., the successor of Shishak on the throne of Egypt. With an enormous army, the largest we read of in Scripture, he invaded the kingdom of Judah in the days of Asa (2 Chronicles 14:9-15). He reached Zephathah, and there encountered the army of Asa. This is the only instance “in all the annals of Judah of a victorious encounter in the field with a first-class heathen power in full force.” The Egyptian host was utterly routed, and the Hebrews gathered “exceeding much spoil.” Three hundred years elapsed before another Egyptian army, that of Necho (B.C. 609), came up against Jerusalem.ETI Zerah.2

    (2.) A son of Tamar (Genesis 38:30); called also Zara (Matthew 1:3).ETI Zerah.3

    (3.) A Gershonite Levite (1 Chronicles 6:21, 1 Chronicles 6:41).ETI Zerah.4


    Zered — =Zared, luxuriance; willow bush, a brook or valley communicating with the Dead Sea near its southern extremity (Numbers 21:12; Deuteronomy 2:14). It is called the “brook of the willows” (Isaiah 15:7) and the “river of the wilderness” (Amos 6:14). It has been identified with the Wady el-Aksy.ETI Zered.2


    Zereda — the fortress, a city on the north of Mount Ephraim; the birthplace of Jeroboam (1 Kings 11:26). It is probably the same as Zaretan (Joshua 3:16), Zererath (Judges 7:22), Zartanah (1 Kings 4:12), or the following.ETI Zereda.2


    Zeredathah — a place in the plain of Jordan; the same as Zarthan (2 Chronicles 4:17; 1 Kings 7:46). Here Solomon erected the foundries in which Hiram made the great castings of bronze for the temple.ETI Zeredathah.2


    Zererath — (Judges 7:22), perhaps identical with Zereda or Zeredathah. Some identify it with Zahrah, a place about 3 miles west of Beth-shean.ETI Zererath.2


    Zeresh — star of Venus, the wife of Haman, whom she instigated to prepare a gallows for Mordecai (Esther 5:10).ETI Zeresh.2


    Zeruah — stricken, mother of Jeroboam, the first king of the ten tribes (1 Kings 11:26).ETI Zeruah.2


    Zerubbabel — the seed of Babylon, the son of Salathiel or Shealtiel (Haggai 1:1; Zorobabel, Matthew 1:12); called also the son of Pedaiah (1 Chronicles 3:17-19), i.e., according to a frequent usage of the word “son;” the grandson or the nephew of Salathiel. He is also known by the Persian name of Sheshbazzar (Ezra 1:8, Ezra 1:11). In the first year of Cyrus, king of Persia, he led the first band of Jews, numbering 42,360 (Ezra 2:64), exclusive of a large number of servants, who returned from captivity at the close of the seventy years. In the second year after the Return, he erected an altar and laid the foundation of the temple on the ruins of that which had been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (Ezra 3:8-13; ch. Ezra 4-6). All through the work he occupied a prominent place, inasmuch as he was a descendant of the royal line of David.ETI Zerubbabel.2


    Zeruiah — stricken of the Lord, David’s sister, and the mother of Abishai, Joab, and Asahel (1 Chronicles 2:16), who were the three leading heroes of David’s army, and being his nephews, they were admitted to the closest companionship with him.ETI Zeruiah.2


    Zetham — olive planter, a Levite (1 Chronicles 23:8).ETI Zetham.2


    Zethan — a Benjamite (1 Chronicles 7:10).ETI Zethan.2


    Zia — fear, a Gadite (1 Chronicles 5:13).ETI Zia.2


    Ziba — post; statue, “a servant of the house of Saul” (2 Samuel 9:2), who informed David that Mephibosheth, a son of Jonathan, was alive. He afterwards dealt treacherously toward Mephibosheth, whom he slanderously misrepresented to David.ETI Ziba.2


    Zibeon — robber; or dyed. (1.) A Hivite (Genesis 36:2).ETI Zibeon.2

    (2.) A Horite, and son of Seir (Genesis 36:20).ETI Zibeon.3


    Zibia — gazelle, a Benjamite (1 Chronicles 8:9).ETI Zibia.2


    Zibiah — the mother of King Joash (2 Kings 12:1; 2 Chronicles 24:1).ETI Zibiah.2


    Zichri — remembered; illustrious. (1.) A Benjamite chief (1 Chronicles 8:19).ETI Zichri.2

    (2.) Another of the same tribe (1 Chronicles 8:23).ETI Zichri.3


    Ziddim — sides, a town of Naphtali (Joshua 19:35), has been identified with Kefr-Hattin, the “village of the Hittites,” about 5 miles west of Tiberias.ETI Ziddim.2


    Zidkijah — the Lord is righteous, one who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Nehemiah 10:1).ETI Zidkijah.2


    Zidon — a fishery, a town on the Mediterranean coast, about 25 miles north of Tyre. It received its name from the “first-born” of Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Genesis 10:15, Genesis 10:19). It was the first home of the Phoenicians on the coast of Palestine, and from its extensive commercial relations became a “great” city (Joshua 11:8; Joshua 19:28). It was the mother city of Tyre. It lay within the lot of the tribe of Asher, but was never subdued (Judges 1:31). The Zidonians long oppressed Israel (Judges 10:12). From the time of David its glory began to wane, and Tyre, its “virgin daughter” (Isaiah 23:12), rose to its place of pre-eminence. Solomon entered into a matrimonial alliance with the Zidonians, and thus their form of idolatrous worship found a place in the land of Israel (1 Kings 11:1, 1 Kings 11:33). This city was famous for its manufactures and arts, as well as for its commerce (1 Kings 5:6; 1 Chronicles 22:4; Ezekiel 27:8). It is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isaiah 23:2, Isaiah 23:4, Isaiah 23:12; Jeremiah 25:22; Jeremiah 27:3; Jeremiah 47:4; Ezekiel 27:8; Ezekiel 28:21, Ezekiel 28:22; Ezekiel 32:30; Joel 3:4). Our Lord visited the “coasts” of Tyre and Zidon = Sidon (q.v.), Matthew 15:21; Mark 7:24; Luke 4:26; and from this region many came forth to hear him preaching (Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17). From Sidon, at which the ship put in after leaving Caesarea, Paul finally sailed for Rome (Acts 27:3, Acts 27:4).ETI Zidon.2

    This city is now a town of 10,000 inhabitants, with remains of walls built in the twelfth century A.D. In 1855, the sarcophagus of Eshmanezer was discovered. From a Phoenician inscription on its lid, it appears that he was a “king of the Sidonians,” probably in the third century B.C., and that his mother was a priestess of Ashtoreth, “the goddess of the Sidonians.” In this inscription Baal is mentioned as the chief god of the Sidonians.ETI Zidon.3


    Zif — brightness; splendour; i.e., “the flower month,” mentioned only in 1 Kings 6:1, 1 Kings 6:37, as the “second month.” It was called Iyar by the later Jews. (See MONTH.)ETI Zif.2


    Ziha — drought. (1.) The name of a family of Nethinim (Ezra 2:43; Nehemiah 7:46). (2.) A ruler among the Nethinim (Nehemiah 11:21).ETI Ziha.2


    Ziklag — a town in the Negeb, or south country of Judah (Joshua 15:31), in the possession of the Philistines when David fled to Gath from Ziph with all his followers. Achish, the king, assigned him Ziklag as his place of residence. There he dwelt for over a year and four months. From this time it pertained to the kings of Judah (1 Samuel 27:6). During his absence with his army to join the Philistine expedition against the Israelites (1 Samuel 29:11), it was destroyed by the Amalekites (1 Samuel 30:1, 1 Samuel 30:2), whom David, however, pursued and utterly routed, returning all the captives (1 Samuel 30:26-31). Two days after his return from this expedition, David received tidings of the disastrous battle of Gilboa and of the death of Saul (2 Samuel 1:1-16). He now left Ziklag and returned to Hebron, along with his two wives, Ahinoam and Abigail, and his band of 600 men. It has been identified with ‘Asluj, a heap of ruins south of Beersheba. Conder, however, identifies it with Khirbet Zuheilikah, ruins found on three hills half a mile apart, some seventeen miles north-west of Beersheba, on the confines of Philistia, Judah, and Amalek.ETI Ziklag.2


    Zillah — shadow, one of the wives of Lamech, of the line of Cain, and mother of Tubal-cain (Genesis 4:19, Genesis 4:22).ETI Zillah.2


    Zilpah — drooping, Leah’s handmaid, and the mother of Gad and Asher (Genesis 30:9-13).ETI Zilpah.2


    Zilthai — shadow (i.e., protection) of Jehovah. (1.) A Benjamite (1 Chronicles 8:20). (2.) One of the captains of the tribe of Manasseh who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:20).ETI Zilthai.2


    Zimmah — mischief. (1.) A Gershonite Levite (1 Chronicles 6:20).ETI Zimmah.2

    (2.) Another Gershonite Levite (1 Chronicles 6:42).ETI Zimmah.3

    (3.) The father of Joah (2 Chronicles 29:12).ETI Zimmah.4


    Zimran — vine-dressers; celebrated, one of the sons of Abraham by Keturah (Genesis 25:2).ETI Zimran.2


    Zimri — praise-worthy. (1.) A son of Salu, slain by Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, because of his wickedness in bringing a Midianitish woman into his tent (Numbers 25:6-15).ETI Zimri.2

    (2.) Murdered Elah at Tirzah, and succeeded him on the throne of Israel (1 Kings 16:8-10). He reigned only seven days, for Omri, whom the army elected as king, laid siege to Tirzah, whereupon Zimri set fire to the palace and perished amid its ruins (1 Kings 16:11-20). Omri succeeded to the throne only after four years of fierce war with Tibni, another claimant to the throne.ETI Zimri.3


    Zin — a low palm-tree, the south-eastern corner of the desert et-Tih, the wilderness of Paran, between the Gulf of Akabah and the head of the Wady Guraiyeh (Numbers 13:21). To be distinguished from the wilderness of Sin (q.v.).ETI Zin.2


    Zina — ornament, one of the sons of Shimei (1 Chronicles 23:10).ETI Zina.2


    Zion — sunny; height, one of the eminences on which Jerusalem was built. It was surrounded on all sides, except the north, by deep valleys, that of the Tyropoeon (q.v.) separating it from Moriah (q.v.), which it surpasses in height by 105 feet. It was the south-eastern hill of Jerusalem.ETI Zion.2

    When David took it from the Jebusites (Joshua 15:63; 2 Samuel 5:7) he built on it a citadel and a palace, and it became “the city of David” (1 Kings 8:1; 2 Kings 19:21, 2 Kings 19:31; 1 Chronicles 11:5). In the later books of the Old Testament this name was sometimes used (Psalm 87:2; Psalm 149:2; Isaiah 33:14; Joel 2:1) to denote Jerusalem in general, and sometimes God’s chosen Israel (Psalm 51:18; Psalm 87:5).ETI Zion.3

    In the New Testament (see SION ) it is used sometimes to denote the Church of God (Hebrews 12:22), and sometimes the heavenly city (Revelation 14:1).ETI Zion.4


    Zior — littleness, a city in the mountains of Judah (Joshua 15:54); the modern Si’air, 4 1/2 miles north-north-east of Hebron.ETI Zior.2


    Ziph — flowing. (1.) A son of Jehaleleel (1 Chronicles 4:16).ETI Ziph.2

    (2.) A city in the south of Judah (Joshua 15:24), probably at the pass of Sufah.ETI Ziph.3

    (3.) A city in the mountains of Judah (Joshua 15:55), identified with the uninhabited ruins of Tell ez-Zif, about 5 miles south-east of Hebron. Here David hid himself during his wanderings (1 Samuel 23:19; Psalm 54, title).ETI Ziph.4


    Ziphah — a descendant of Judah (1 Chronicles 4:16).ETI Ziphah.2


    Ziphron — sweet odour, a city on the northern border of Palestine (Numbers 34:9), south-east of Hamath.ETI Ziphron.2


    Zippor — a little bird, the father of Balak, king of Moab (Numbers 22:2, Numbers 22:4).ETI Zippor.2


    Zipporah — a female bird. Reuel’s daughter, who became the wife of Moses (Exodus 2:21). In consequence of the event recorded in Exodus 4:24-26, she and her two sons, Gershom and Eliezer, when so far on the way with Moses toward Egypt, were sent back by him to her own kinsfolk, the Midianites, with whom they sojourned till Moses afterwards joined them (Exodus 18:2-6).ETI Zipporah.2


    Zithri — the Lord protects, a Levite, son of Uzziel (Exodus 6:22).ETI Zithri.2


    Ziz — projecting; a flower, a cleft or pass, probably that near En-gedi, which leads up from the Dead Sea (2 Chronicles 20:16) in the direction of Tekoa; now Tell Hasasah.ETI Ziz.2


    Ziza — splendour; abundance. (1.) A Simeonite prince (1 Chronicles 4:37-43).ETI Ziza.2

    (2.) A son of Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 11:20).ETI Ziza.3

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