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    Adore — Amittai


    Adore — to worship; to express reverence and homage. The forms of adoration among the Jews were putting off the shoes (Exodus 3:5; Joshua 5:15), and prostration (Genesis 17:3; Psalm 95:6; Isaiah 44:15, Isaiah 44:17, Isaiah 44:19; Isaiah 46:6). To “kiss the Son” in Psalm 2:12 is to adore and worship him. (See Daniel 3:5, Daniel 3:6.) The word itself does not occur in Scripture.ETI Adore.2


    Adrammelech — Adar the king. (1.) An idol; a form of the sun-god worshipped by the inhabitants of Sepharvaim (2 Kings 17:31), and brought by the Sepharvite colonists into Samaria. (2.) A son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria (2 Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38).ETI Adrammelech.2


    Adramyttium — a city of Asia Minor on the coast of Mysia, which in early times was called AEolis. The ship in which Paul embarked at Caesarea belonged to this city (Acts 27:2). He was conveyed in it only to Myra, in Lycia, whence he sailed in an Alexandrian ship to Italy. It was a rare thing for a ship to sail from any port of Palestine direct for Italy. It still bears the name Adramyti, and is a place of some traffic.ETI Adramyttium.2


    Adria — (Acts 27:27; R.V., “the sea of Adria”), the Adriatic Sea, including in Paul’s time the whole of the Mediterranean lying between Crete and Sicily. It is the modern Gulf of Venice, the Mare Superum of the Romans, as distinguished from the Mare Inferum or Tyrrhenian Sea.ETI Adria.2


    Adriel — flock of God, the son of Barzillai, the Meholathite, to whom Saul gave in marriage his daughter Merab (1 Samuel 18:19). The five sons that sprang from this union were put to death by the Gibeonites (2 Samuel 21:8, 2 Samuel 21:9. Here it is said that Michal “brought up” [R.V., “bare"] these five sons, either that she treated them as if she had been their own mother, or that for “Michal” we should read “Merab,” as in 1 Samuel 18:19).ETI Adriel.2


    Adullam — one of the royal cities of the Canaanites, now ‘Aid-el-ma (Joshua 12:15; Joshua 15:35). It stood on the old Roman road in the valley of Elah (q.v.), which was the scene of David’s memorable victory over Goliath (1 Samuel 17:2), and not far from Gath. It was one of the towns which Rehoboam fortified against Egypt (2 Chronicles 11:7). It was called “the glory of Israel” (Micah 1:15).ETI Adullam.2

    The Cave of Adullam has been discovered about 2 miles south of the scene of David’s triumph, and about 13 miles west from Bethlehem. At this place is a hill some 500 feet high pierced with numerous caverns, in one of which David gathered together “every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented” (1 Samuel 22:2). Some of these caverns are large enough to hold 200 or 300 men. According to tradition this cave was at Wady Khureitun, between Bethlehem and the Dead Sea, but this view cannot be well maintained.ETI Adullam.3


    Adullamite — an inhabitant of the city of Adullam (Genesis 38:1, Genesis 38:12, Genesis 38:20).ETI Adullamite.2


    Adultery — conjugal infidelity. An adulterer was a man who had illicit intercourse with a married or a betrothed woman, and such a woman was an adulteress. Intercourse between a married man and an unmarried woman was fornication. Adultery was regarded as a great social wrong, as well as a great sin.ETI Adultery.2

    The Mosaic law (Numbers 5:11-31) prescribed that the suspected wife should be tried by the ordeal of the “water of jealousy.” There is, however, no recorded instance of the application of this law. In subsequent times the Rabbis made various regulations with the view of discovering the guilty party, and of bringing about a divorce. It has been inferred from John 8:1-11 that this sin became very common during the age preceding the destruction of Jerusalem.ETI Adultery.3

    Idolatry, covetousness, and apostasy are spoken of as adultery spiritually (Jeremiah 3:6, Jeremiah 3:8, Jeremiah 3:9; Ezekiel 16:32; Hosea 1:2:Hosea 1:3; Revelation 2:22). An apostate church is an adulteress (Isaiah 1:21; Ezekiel 23:4, Ezekiel 23:7, Ezekiel 23:37), and the Jews are styled “an adulterous generation” (Matthew 12:39). (Comp. Revelation 12.)ETI Adultery.4


    Adummim — the red ones, a place apparently on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem, “on the south side of the torrent” Wady Kelt, looking toward Gilgal, mentioned Joshua 15:7; Joshua 18:17. It was nearly half-way between Jerusalem and Jericho, and now bears the name of Tal-at-ed-Dumm. It is supposed to have been the place referred to in the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:30-37). Recently a new carriage-road has been completed, and carriages for the first time have come along this road from Jerusalem.ETI Adummim.2


    Adversary — (Heb. satan), an opponent or foe (1 Kings 5:4; 1 Kings 11:14, 1 Kings 11:23, 1 Kings 11:25; Luke 13:17); one that speaks against another, a complainant (Matthew 5:25; Luke 12:58); an enemy (Luke 18:3), and specially the devil (1 Peter 5:8).ETI Adversary.2


    Advocate — (Gr. parakletos), one who pleads another’s cause, who helps another by defending or comforting him. It is a name given by Christ three times to the Holy Ghost (John 14:16; John 15:26; John 16:7, where the Greek word is rendered “Comforter,” q.v.). It is applied to Christ in 1 John 2:1, where the same Greek word is rendered “Advocate,” the rendering which it should have in all the places where it occurs. Tertullus “the orator” (Acts 24:1) was a Roman advocate whom the Jews employed to accuse Paul before Felix.ETI Advocate.2


    AEnon — springs, a place near Salim where John baptized (John 3:23). It was probably near the upper source of the Wady Far’ah, an open valley extending from Mount Ebal to the Jordan. It is full of springs. A place has been found called ‘Ainun, four miles north of the springs.ETI AEnon.2


    Affection — feeling or emotion. Mention is made of “vile affections” (Romans 1:26) and “inordinate affection” (Colossians 3:5). Christians are exhorted to set their affections on things above (Colossians 3:2). There is a distinction between natural and spiritual or gracious affections (Ezekiel 33:32).ETI Affection.2


    Affinity — relationship by alliance (2 Chronicles 18:1) or by marriage (1 Kings 3:1). Marriages are prohibited within certain degrees of affinity, enumerated Leviticus 18:6-17. Consanguinity is relationship by blood.ETI Affinity.2


    Afflictions — common to all (Job 5:7; Job 14:1; Psalm 34:19); are for the good of men (James 1:2, James 1:3, James 1:12; 2 Corinthians 12:7) and the glory of God (2 Corinthians 12:7-10; 1 Peter 4:14), and are to be borne with patience by the Lord’s people (Psalm 94:12; Proverbs 3:12). They are all directed by God (Lamentations 3:33), and will result in the everlasting good of his people (2 Corinthians 4:16-18) in Christ Jesus (Romans 8:35-39).ETI Afflictions.2


    Agabus — a “prophet,” probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He prophesied at Antioch of an approaching famine (Acts 11:27, Acts 11:28). Many years afterwards he met Paul at Caesarea, and warned him of the bonds and affliction that awaited him at Jerusalem should he persist in going thither (Acts 21:10-12).ETI Agabus.2


    Agag — flame, the usual title of the Amalekite kings, as “Pharaoh” was of the Egyptian. (1.) A king of the Amalekites referred to by Balaam (Numbers 24:7). He lived at the time of the Exodus.ETI Agag.2

    (2.) Another king of the Amalekites whom Saul spared unlawfully, but whom Samuel on his arrival in the camp of Saul ordered, in retributive justice (Judges 1), to be brought out and cut in pieces (1 Samuel 15:8-33. Comp. Exodus 17:11; Numbers 14:45).ETI Agag.3


    Agagite — a name applied to Haman and also to his father (Esther 3:1, Esther 3:10; Esther 8:3, Esther 8:5). Probably it was equivalent to Amalekite.ETI Agagite.2


    Agate — (Heb. shebo), a precious stone in the breast-plate of the high priest (Exodus 28:19; Exodus 39:12), the second in the third row. This may be the agate properly so called, a semi-transparent crystallized quartz, probably brought from Sheba, whence its name. In Isaiah 54:12 and Ezekiel 27:16, this word is the rendering of the Hebrew cadcod, which means “ruddy,” and denotes a variety of minutely crystalline silica more or less in bands of different tints.ETI Agate.2

    This word is from the Greek name of a stone found in the river Achates in Sicily.ETI Agate.3


    Age — used to denote the period of a man’s life (Genesis 47:28), the maturity of life (John 9:21), the latter end of life (Job 11:17), a generation of the human race (Job 8:8), and an indefinite period (Ephesians 2:7; Ephesians 3:5, Ephesians 3:21; Colossians 1:26). Respect to be shown to the aged (Leviticus 19:32). It is a blessing to communities when they have old men among them (Isaiah 65:20; Zechariah 8:4). The aged supposed to excel in understanding (Job 12:20; Job 15:10; Job 32:4, Job 32:9; 1 Kings 12:6, 1 Kings 12:8). A full age the reward of piety (Job 5:26; Genesis 15:15).ETI Age.2


    Agee — fugitive, the father of Shammah, who was one of David’s mighty men (2 Samuel 23:11)ETI Agee.2


    Agony — contest; wrestling; severe struggling with pain and suffering. Anguish is the reflection on evil that is already past, while agony is a struggle with evil at the time present. It is only used in the New Testament by Luke (Luke 22:44) to describe our Lord’s fearful struggle in Gethsemane.ETI Agony.2

    The verb from which the noun “agony” is derived is used to denote an earnest endeavour or striving, as “Strive [agonize] to enter” (Luke 13:24); “Then would my servants fight” [agonize] (John 18:36). Comp. 1 Corinthians 9:25; Colossians 1:29; Colossians 4:12; 1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 4:7, where the words “striveth,” “labour,” “conflict,” “fight,” are the renderings of the same Greek verb.ETI Agony.3


    Agriculture — Tilling the ground (Genesis 2:15; Genesis 4:2, Genesis 4:3, Genesis 4:12) and rearing cattle were the chief employments in ancient times. The Egyptians excelled in agriculture. And after the Israelites entered into the possession of the Promised Land, their circumstances favoured in the highest degree a remarkable development of this art. Agriculture became indeed the basis of the Mosaic commonwealth.ETI Agriculture.2

    The year in Palestine was divided into six agricultural periods:-ETI Agriculture.3

    I. SOWING TIME. Tisri, latter half (beginning about the autumnal equinox.) Marchesvan. Kisleu, former half. Early rain due = first showers of autumn.ETI Agriculture.4

    II. UNRIPE TIME. Kisleu, latter half. Tebet. Sebat, former half.ETI Agriculture.5

    III. COLD SEASON. Sebat, latter half. Adar. [Veadar.] Nisan, former half. Latter rain due (Deuteronomy 11:14; Jeremiah 5:24; Hosea 6:3; Zechariah 10:1; James 5:7; Job 29:23).ETI Agriculture.6

    IV. HARVEST TIME. Nisan, latter half. (Beginning about vernal equinox. Barley green. Passover.) Ijar. Sivan, former half., Wheat ripe. Pentecost.ETI Agriculture.7

    V. SUMMER (total absence of rain) Sivan, latter half. Tammuz. Ab, former half.ETI Agriculture.8

    VI. SULTRY SEASON Ab, latter half. Elul. Tisri, former half., Ingathering of fruits.ETI Agriculture.9

    The six months from the middle of Tisri to the middle of Nisan were occupied with the work of cultivation, and the rest of the year mainly with the gathering in of the fruits. The extensive and easily-arranged system of irrigation from the rills and streams from the mountains made the soil in every part of Palestine richly productive (Psalm 1:3; Psalm 65:10; Proverbs 21:1; Isaiah 30:25; Isaiah 32:2, Isaiah 32:20; Hosea 12:11), and the appliances of careful cultivation and of manure increased its fertility to such an extent that in the days of Solomon, when there was an abundant population, “20,000 measures of wheat year by year” were sent to Hiram in exchange for timber (1 Kings 5:11), and in large quantities also wheat was sent to the Tyrians for the merchandise in which they traded (Ezekiel 27:17). The wheat sometimes produced an hundredfold (Genesis 26:12; Matthew 13:23). Figs and pomegranates were very plentiful (Numbers 13:23), and the vine and the olive grew luxuriantly and produced abundant fruit (Deuteronomy 33:24).ETI Agriculture.10

    Lest the productiveness of the soil should be exhausted, it was enjoined that the whole land should rest every seventh year, when all agricultural labour would entirely cease (Leviticus 25:1-7; Deuteronomy 15:1-10).ETI Agriculture.11

    It was forbidden to sow a field with divers seeds (Deuteronomy 22:9). A passer-by was at liberty to eat any quantity of corn or grapes, but he was not permitted to carry away any (Deuteronomy 23:24, Deuteronomy 23:25; Matthew 12:1). The poor were permitted to claim the corners of the fields and the gleanings. A forgotten sheaf in the field was to be left also for the poor. (See Leviticus 19:9, Leviticus 19:10; Deuteronomy 24:19.)ETI Agriculture.12

    Agricultural implements and operations.ETI Agriculture.13

    The sculptured monuments and painted tombs of Egypt and Assyria throw much light on this subject, and on the general operations of agriculture. Ploughs of a simple construction were known in the time of Moses (Deuteronomy 22:10; comp. Job 1:14). They were very light, and required great attention to keep them in the ground (Luke 9:62). They were drawn by oxen (Job 1:14), cows (1 Samuel 6:7), and asses (Isaiah 30:24); but an ox and an ass must not be yoked together in the same plough (Deuteronomy 22:10). Men sometimes followed the plough with a hoe to break the clods (Isaiah 28:24). The oxen were urged on by a “goad,” or long staff pointed at the end, so that if occasion arose it could be used as a spear also (Judges 3:31; 1 Samuel 13:21).ETI Agriculture.14

    When the soil was prepared, the seed was sown broadcast over the field (Matthew 13:3-8). The “harrow” mentioned in Job 39:10 was not used to cover the seeds, but to break the clods, being little more than a thick block of wood. In highly irrigated spots the seed was trampled in by cattle (Isaiah 32:20); but doubtless there was some kind of harrow also for covering in the seed scattered in the furrows of the field.ETI Agriculture.15

    The reaping of the corn was performed either by pulling it up by the roots, or cutting it with a species of sickle, according to circumstances. The corn when cut was generally put up in sheaves (Genesis 37:7; Leviticus 23:10-15; Ruth 2:7, Ruth 2:15; Job 24:10; Jeremiah 9:22; Micah 4:12), which were afterwards gathered to the threshing-floor or stored in barns (Matthew 6:26).ETI Agriculture.16

    The process of threshing was performed generally by spreading the sheaves on the threshing-floor and causing oxen and cattle to tread repeatedly over them (Deuteronomy 25:4; Isaiah 28:28). On occasions flails or sticks were used for this purpose (Ruth 2:17; Isaiah 28:27). There was also a “threshing instrument” (Isaiah 41:15; Amos 1:3) which was drawn over the corn. It was called by the Hebrews a moreg, a threshing roller or sledge (2 Samuel 24:22; 1 Chronicles 21:23; Isaiah 3:15). It was somewhat like the Roman tribulum, or threshing instrument.ETI Agriculture.17

    When the grain was threshed, it was winnowed by being thrown up against the wind (Jeremiah 4:11), and afterwards tossed with wooden scoops (Isaiah 30:24). The shovel and the fan for winnowing are mentioned in Psalm 35:5, Job 21:18, Isaiah 17:13. The refuse of straw and chaff was burned (Isaiah 5:24). Freed from impurities, the grain was then laid up in granaries till used (Deuteronomy 28:8; Proverbs 3:10; Matthew 6:26; Matthew 13:30; Luke 12:18).ETI Agriculture.18

    Agrippa I.

    Agrippa I. — the grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus and Bernice. The Roman emperor Caligula made him governor first of the territories of Philip, then of the tetrarchy of Lysanias, with the title of king (“king Herod”), and finally of that of Antipas, who was banished, and of Samaria and Judea. Thus he became ruler over the whole of Palestine. He was a persecutor of the early Christians. He slew James, and imprisoned Peter (Acts 12:1-4). He died at Caesarea, being “eaten of worms” (Acts 12:23), 44. (Comp. Josephus, Ant. xix. 8.)ETI Agrippa I..2

    Agrippa II.

    Agrippa II. — son of the foregoing, was born at Rome, 27. He was the brother of Bernice and Drusilla. The Emperor Claudius ( 48) invested him with the office of superintendent of the Temple of Jerusalem, and made him governor ( 50) of Chalcis. He was afterwards raised to the rank of king, and made governor over the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias (Acts 25:13; Acts 26:2, Acts 26:7). It was before him that Paul delivered ( 59) his speech recorded in Acts 26. His private life was very profligate. He died (the last of his race) at Rome, at the age of about seventy years, 100.ETI Agrippa II..2


    Ague — the translation in Leviticus 26:16 (R.V., “fever”) of the Hebrew word kaddah’ath, meaning “kindling”, i.e., an inflammatory or burning fever. In Deuteronomy 28:22 the word is rendered “fever.”ETI Ague.2


    Agur — gatherer; the collector, mentioned as author of the sayings in Proverbs 30. Nothing is known of him beyond what is there recorded.ETI Agur.2


    Ah! — an exclamation of sorrow or regret (Psalm 35:25; Isaiah 1:4, Isaiah 1:24; Jeremiah 1:6; Jeremiah 22:18; Mark 15:29).ETI Ah!.2


    Aha! — an exclamation of ridicule (Psalm 35:21; Psalm 40:15; Psalm 70:3). In Isaiah 44:16 it signifies joyful surprise, as also in Job 39:25, R.V.ETI Aha!.2


    Ahab — father’s brother. (1.) The son of Omri, whom he succeeded as the seventh king of Israel. His history is recorded in 1 Kings 16-22. His wife was Jezebel (q.v.), who exercised a very evil influence over him. To the calf-worship introduced by Jeroboam he added the worship of Baal. He was severely admonished by Elijah (q.v.) for his wickedness. His anger was on this account kindled against the prophet, and he sought to kill him. He undertook three campaigns against Ben-hadad II., king of Damascus. In the first two, which were defensive, he gained a complete victory over Ben-hadad, who fell into his hands, and was afterwards released on the condition of his restoring all the cities of Israel he then held, and granting certain other concessions to Ahab. After three years of peace, for some cause Ahab renewed war (1 Kings 22:3) with Ben-hadad by assaulting the city of Ramoth-gilead, although the prophet Micaiah warned him that he would not succeed, and that the 400 false prophets who encouraged him were only leading him to his ruin. Micaiah was imprisoned for thus venturing to dissuade Ahab from his purpose. Ahab went into the battle disguised, that he might if possible escape the notice of his enemies; but an arrow from a bow “drawn at a venture” pierced him, and though stayed up in his chariot for a time he died towards evening, and Elijah’s prophecy (1 Kings 21:19) was fulfilled. He reigned twenty-three years. Because of his idolatry, lust, and covetousness, Ahab is referred to as pre-eminently the type of a wicked king (2 Kings 8:18; 2 Chronicles 22:3; Micah 6:16).ETI Ahab.2

    (2.) A false prophet referred to by Jeremiah (Jeremiah 29:21), of whom nothing further is known.ETI Ahab.3


    Ahasuerus — There are three kings designated by this name in Scripture. (1.) The father of Darius the Mede, mentioned in Daniel 9:1. This was probably the Cyaxares I. known by this name in profane history, the king of Media and the conqueror of Nineveh.ETI Ahasuerus.2

    (2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 4:6, probably the Cambyses of profane history, the son and successor of Cyrus ( 529).ETI Ahasuerus.3

    (3.) The son of Darius Hystaspes, the king named in the Book of Esther. He ruled over the kingdoms of Persia, Media, and Babylonia, “from India to Ethiopia.” This was in all probability the Xerxes of profane history, who succeeded his father Darius ( 485). In the LXX. version of the Book of Esther the name Artaxerxes occurs for Ahasuerus. He reigned for twenty-one years ( 486-465). He invaded Greece with an army, it is said, of more than 2,000,000 soldiers, only 5,000 of whom returned with him. Leonidas, with his famous 300, arrested his progress at the Pass of Thermopylae, and then he was defeated disastrously by Themistocles at Salamis. It was after his return from this invasion that Esther was chosen as his queen.ETI Ahasuerus.4


    Ahava — water, the river (Ezra 8:21) by the banks of which the Jewish exiles assembled under Ezra when about to return to Jerusalem from Babylon. In all probability this was one of the streams of Mesopotamia which flowed into the Euphrates somewhere in the north-west of Babylonia. It has, however, been supposed to be the name of a place (Ezra 8:15) now called Hit, on the Euphrates, east of Damascus.ETI Ahava.2


    Ahaz — possessor. (1.) A grandson of Jonathan (1 Chronicles 8:35; 1 Chronicles 9:42).ETI Ahaz.2

    (2.) The son and successor of Jotham, king of Judah (2 Kings 16; Isaiah 7-9; 2 Chronicles 28). He gave himself up to a life of wickedness and idolatry. Notwithstanding the remonstrances and warnings of Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, he appealed for help against Rezin, king of Damascus, and Pekah, king of Israel, who threatened Jerusalem, to Tiglath-pileser, the king of Assyria, to the great injury of his kingdom and his own humilating subjection to the Assyrians (2 Kings 16:7, 2 Kings 16:9; 2 Kings 15:29). He also introduced among his people many heathen and idolatrous customs (Isaiah 8:19; Isaiah 38:8; 2 Kings 23:12). He died at the age of thirty-five years, after reigning sixteen years ( 740-724), and was succeeded by his son Hezekiah. Because of his wickedness he was “not brought into the sepulchre of the kings.”ETI Ahaz.3


    Ahaziah — held by Jehovah. (1.) The son and successor of Ahab. He followed the counsels of his mother Jezebel, and imitated in wickedness the ways of his father. In his reign the Moabites revolted from under his authority (2 Kings 3:5-7). He united with Jehoshaphat in an attempt to revive maritime trade by the Red Sea, which proved a failure (2 Chronicles 20:35-37). His messengers, sent to consult the god of Ekron regarding his recovery from the effects of a fall from the roof-gallery of his palace, were met on the way by Elijah, who sent them back to tell the king that he would never rise from his bed (1 Kings 22:51; 2 Kings 1:18).ETI Ahaziah.2

    (2.) The son of Joram, or Jehoram, and sixth king of Judah. Called Jehoahaz (2 Chronicles 21:17; 2 Chronicles 25:23), and Azariah (2 Chronicles 22:6). Guided by his idolatrous mother Athaliah, his reign was disastrous (2 Kings 8:24-29; 2 Kings 9:29). He joined his uncle Jehoram, king of Israel, in an expedition against Hazael, king of Damascus; but was wounded at the pass of Gur when attempting to escape, and had strength only to reach Megiddo, where he died (2 Kings 9:22-28). He reigned only one year.ETI Ahaziah.3


    Ahiam — mother’s brother, one of David’s thirty heroes (2 Samuel 23:33; 1 Chronicles 11:35).ETI Ahiam.2


    Ahiezer — brother of help; i.e., “helpful.” (1.) The chief of the tribe of Dan at the time of the Exodus (Numbers 1:12; Numbers 2:25; Numbers 10:25).ETI Ahiezer.2

    (2.) The chief of the Benjamite slingers that repaired to David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:3).ETI Ahiezer.3


    Ahihud — brother (i.e., “friend”) of union. (1.) A son of Bela, the son of Benjamin (1 Chronicles 8:7).ETI Ahihud.2

    (2.) Name different in Hebrew, meaning brother of Judah. Chief of the tribe of Asher; one of those appointed by Moses to superintend the division of Canaan among the tribe (Numbers 34:27).ETI Ahihud.3


    Ahijah — brother (i.e., “friend”) of Jehovah. (1.) One of the sons of Bela (1 Chronicles 8:7, R.V.). In A.V. called “Ahiah.”ETI Ahijah.2

    (2.) One of the five sons of Jerahmeel, who was great-grandson of Judah (1 Chronicles 2:25).ETI Ahijah.3

    (3.) Son of Ahitub (1 Samuel 14:3, 1 Samuel 14:18), Ichabod’s brother; the same probably as Ahimelech, who was high priest at Nob in the reign of Saul (1 Samuel 22:11). Some, however, suppose that Ahimelech was the brother of Ahijah, and that they both officiated as high priests, Ahijah at Gibeah or Kirjath-jearim, and Ahimelech at Nob.ETI Ahijah.4

    (4.) A Pelonite, one of David’s heroes (1 Chronicles 11:36); called also Eliam (2 Samuel 23:34).ETI Ahijah.5

    (5.) A Levite having charge of the sacred treasury in the temple (1 Chronicles 26:20).ETI Ahijah.6

    (6.) One of Solomon’s secretaries (1 Kings 4:3).ETI Ahijah.7

    (7.) A prophet of Shiloh (1 Kings 11:29; 1 Kings 14:2), called the “Shilonite,” in the days of Rehoboam. We have on record two of his remarkable prophecies, 1 Kings 11:31-39, announcing the rending of the ten tribes from Solomon; and 1 Kings 14:6-16, delivered to Jeroboam’s wife, foretelling the death of Abijah the king’s son, the destruction of Jeroboam’s house, and the captivity of Israel “beyond the river.” Jeroboam bears testimony to the high esteem in which he was held as a prophet of God (1 Kings 14:2,1 Kings 14:3).ETI Ahijah.8


    Ahikam — brother of support = helper, one of the five whom Josiah sent to consult the prophetess Huldah in connection with the discovery of the book of the law (2 Kings 22:12-14; 2 Chronicles 34:20). He was the son of Shaphan, the royal secretary, and the father of Gedaliah, governor of Judea after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians (2 Kings 25:22; Jeremiah 40:5-16; Jeremiah 43:6). On one occasion he protected Jeremiah against the fury of Jehoiakim (Jeremiah 26:24). It was in the chamber of another son (Germariah) of Shaphan that Baruch read in the ears of all the people Jeremiah’s roll.ETI Ahikam.2


    Ahimaaz — brother of anger = irascible. (1.) The father Ahinoam, the wife of Saul (1 Samuel 14:50).ETI Ahimaaz.2

    (2.) The son and successor of Zadok in the office of high priest (1 Chronicles 6:8, 1 Chronicles 6:53). On the occasion of the revolt of Absalom he remained faithful to David, and was of service to him in conveying to him tidings of the proceedings of Absalom in Jerusalem (2 Samuel 15:24-37; 2 Samuel 17:15-21). He was swift of foot, and was the first to carry to David tidings of the defeat of Absalom, although he refrained, from delicacy of feeling, from telling him of his death (2 Samuel 18:19-33).ETI Ahimaaz.3


    Ahiman — brother of a gift = liberal. (1.) One of the three giant Anakim brothers whom Caleb and the spies saw in Mount Hebron (Numbers 13:22) when they went in to explore the land. They were afterwards driven out and slain (Joshua 15:14; Judges 1:10).ETI Ahiman.2

    (2.) One of the guardians of the temple after the Exile (1 Chronicles 9:17).ETI Ahiman.3


    Ahimelech — brother of the king, the son of Ahitub and father of Abiathar (1 Samuel 22:20-23). He descended from Eli in the line of Ithamar. In 1 Chronicles 18:16 he is called Abimelech, and is probably the same as Ahiah (1 Samuel 14:3, 1 Samuel 14:18). He was the twelfth high priest, and officiated at Nob, where he was visited by David (to whom and his companions he gave five loaves of the showbread) when he fled from Saul (1 Samuel 21:1-9). He was summoned into Saul’s presence, and accused, on the information of Doeg the Edomite, of disloyalty because of his kindness to David; whereupon the king commanded that he, with the other priests who stood beside him (86 in all), should be put to death. This sentence was carried into execution by Doeg in the most cruel manner (1 Samuel 22:9-23). Possibly Abiathar had a son also called Ahimelech, or the two names, as some think, may have been accidentally transposed in 2 Samuel 8:17; 1 Chronicles 18:16, marg.; 1 Chronicles 24:3, 1 Chronicles 24:6, 1 Chronicles 24:31.ETI Ahimelech.2


    Ahinadab — brother of liberality = liberal, one of the twelve commissariat officers appointed by Solomon in so many districts of his kingdom to raise supplies by monthly rotation for his household. He was appointed to the district of Mahanaim (1 Kings 4:14), east of Jordan.ETI Ahinadab.2


    Ahinoam — brother of pleasantness = pleasant. (1.) The daughter of Ahimaaz, and wife of Saul (1 Samuel 14:50).ETI Ahinoam.2

    (2.) A Jezreelitess, the first wife of David (1 Samuel 25:43; 1 Samuel 27:3). She was the mother of Amnon (2 Samuel 3:2). (See 1 Samuel 30:5, 1 Samuel 30:18; 2 Samuel 2:2.)ETI Ahinoam.3


    Ahio — brotherly. (1.) One of the sons of Beriah (1 Chronicles 8:14).ETI Ahio.2

    (2.) One of the sons of Jehiel the Gibeonite (1 Chronicles 8:31; 1 Chronicles 9:37).ETI Ahio.3

    (3.) One of the sons of Abinadab the Levite. While Uzzah went by the side of the ark, he walked before it guiding the oxen which drew the cart on which it was carried, after having brought it from his father’s house in Gibeah (1 Chronicles 13:7; 2 Samuel 6:3, 2 Samuel 6:4).ETI Ahio.4


    Ahira — brother of evil = unlucky, or my brother is friend, chief of the tribe of Naphtali at the Exodus (Numbers 1:15; Numbers 2:29).ETI Ahira.2


    Ahishar — brother of song = singer, the officer who was “over the household” of Solomon (1 Kings 4:6).ETI Ahishar.2


    Ahithophel — brother of insipidity or impiety, a man greatly renowned for his sagacity among the Jews. At the time of Absalom’s revolt he deserted David (Psalm 41:9; Psalm 55:12-14) and espoused the cause of Absalom (2 Samuel 15:12). David sent his old friend Hushai back to Absalom, in order that he might counteract the counsel of Ahithophel (2 Samuel 15:31-37). This end was so far gained that Ahithophel saw he had no longer any influence, and accordingly he at once left the camp of Absalom and returned to Giloh, his native place, where, after arranging his wordly affairs, he hanged himself, and was buried in the sepulchre of his fathers (2 Samuel 17:1-23). He was the type of Judas (Psalm 41:9).ETI Ahithophel.2


    Ahitub — brother of goodness = good. (1.) The son of Phinehas. On the death of his grandfather Eli he succeeded to the office of high priest, and was himself succeeded by his son Ahijah (1 Samuel 14:3; 1 Samuel 22:9, 1 Samuel 22:11, 1 Samuel 22:12, 1 Samuel 22:20).ETI Ahitub.2

    (2.) The father of Zadok, who was made high priest by Saul after the extermination of the family of Ahimelech (1 Chronicles 6:7, 1 Chronicles 6:8; 2 Samuel 8:17).ETI Ahitub.3


    Ahlab — fatness, a town of Asher lying within the unconquered Phoenician border (Judges 1:31), north-west of the Sea of Galilee; commonly identified with Giscala, now el-Jish.ETI Ahlab.2


    Ahoah — brotherly, one of the sons of Bela, the son of Benjamin (1 Chronicles 8:4). He is also called Ahiah (ver. 1 Chronicles 8:7) and Iri (1 Chronicles 7:7). His descendants were called Ahohites (2 Samuel 23:9, 2 Samuel 23:28).ETI Ahoah.2


    Ahohite — an epithet applied to Dodo, one of Solomon’s captains (1 Chronicles 27:4); to his son Eleazar, one of David’s three mightiest heroes (2 Samuel 23:9; 1 Chronicles 11:12); and to Zalmon, one of the thirty (2 Samuel 23:28; 1 Chronicles 11:29), from their descent from Ahoah.ETI Ahohite.2


    Aholah — she has her own tent, a name used by Ezekiel (Ezekiel 23:4, Ezekiel 23:5, Ezekiel 23:36, Ezekiel 23:44) as a symbol of the idolatry of the kingdom of Israel. This kingdom is described as a lewdwoman, an adulteress, given up to the abominations and idolatries of the Egyptians and Assyrians. Because of her crimes, she was carried away captive, and ceased to be a kingdom. (Comp. Psalm 78:67-69; 1 Kings 12:25-33; 2 Chronicles 11:13-16.)ETI Aholah.2


    Aholiab — tent of the father, an artist of the tribe of Dan, appointed to the work of preparing materials for the tabernacle (Exodus 31:6; Exodus 35:34; Exodus 36:1, Exodus 36:2; Exodus 38:23).ETI Aholiab.2


    Aholibah — my tent is in her, the name of an imaginary harlot, applied symbolically to Jerusalem, because she had abandoned the worship of the true God and given herself up to the idolatries of foreign nations. (Ezekiel 23:4, Ezekiel 23:11, Ezekiel 23:22, Ezekiel 23:36, Ezekiel 23:44).ETI Aholibah.2


    Aholibamah — tent of the height, the name given to Judith, the daughter of Beeri = Anah (Genesis 26:34; Genesis 36:2), when she became the wife of Esau. A district among the mountains of Edom, probably near Mount Hor, was called after her name, or it may be that she received her name from the district. From her descended three tribes of Edomites, founded by her three sons.ETI Aholibamah.2


    Ai — ruins. (1.) One of the royal cities of the Canaanites (Joshua 10:1; Genesis 12:8; Genesis 13:3). It was the scene of Joshua’s defeat, and afterwards of his victory. It was the second Canaanite city taken by Israel (Joshua 7:2-5; Joshua 8:1-29). It lay rebuilt and inhibited by the Benjamites (Ezra 2:28; Nehemiah 7:32; Nehemiah 11:31). It lay to the east of Bethel, “beside Beth-aven.” The spot which is most probably the site of this ancient city is Haiyan, 2 miles east from Bethel. It lay up the Wady Suweinit, a steep, rugged valley, extending from the Jordan valley to Bethel.ETI Ai.2

    (2.) A city in the Ammonite territory (Jeremiah 49:3). Some have thought that the proper reading of the word is Ar (Isaiah 15:1).ETI Ai.3

    Aijeleth Shahar

    Aijeleth Shahar — hind of the dawn, a name found in the title of Psalm 22. It is probably the name of some song or tune to the measure of which the psalm was to be chanted. Some, however, understand by the name some instrument of music, or an allegorical allusion to the subject of the psalm.ETI Aijeleth Shahar.2


    Air — the atmosphere, as opposed to the higher regions of the sky (1 Thessalonians 4:17; Revelation 9:2; Revelation 16:17). This word occurs once as the rendering of the Hebrew ruah (Job 41:16); elsewhere it is the rendering of shamaiyim, usually translated “heavens.”ETI Air.2

    The expression “to speak into the air” (1 Corinthians 14:9) is a proverb denoting to speak in vain, as to “beat the air” (1 Corinthians 9:26) denotes to labour in vain.ETI Air.3


    Ajalon — and Aij’alon, place of deer. (1.) A town and valley originally assigned to the tribe of Dan, from which, however, they could not drive the Amorites (Judges 1:35). It was one of the Levitical cities given to the Kohathites (1 Chronicles 6:69). It was not far from Beth-shemesh (2 Chronicles 28:18). It was the boundary between the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, and is frequently mentioned in Jewish history (2 Chronicles 11:10; 1 Samuel 14:31; 1 Chronicles 8:13). With reference to the valley named after the town, Joshua uttered the celebrated command, “Sun, stand thou still on Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon” (Joshua 10:12). It has been identified as the modern Yalo, at the foot of the Beth-horon pass (q.v.). In the Tell Amarna letters Adoni-zedek (q.v.) speaks of the destruction of the “city of Ajalon” by the invaders, and describes himself as “afflicted, greatly afflicted” by the calamities that had come on the land, urging the king of Egypt to hasten to his help.ETI Ajalon.2

    (2.) A city in the tribe of Zebulun (Judges 12:12), the modern Jalun, three miles north of Cabul.ETI Ajalon.3


    Akkub — (another form of Jacob). (1.) The head of one of the families of Nethinim (Ezra 2:45).ETI Akkub.2

    (2.) A Levite who kept the gate of the temple after the return from Babylon (1 Chronicles 9:17; Ezra 2:42; Nehemiah 7:45).ETI Akkub.3

    (3.) A descendant of David (1 Chronicles 3:24).ETI Akkub.4


    Akrabbim — scorpions, probably the general name given to the ridge containing the pass between the south of the Dead Sea and Zin, es-Sufah, by which there is an ascent to the level of the land of Palestine. Scorpions are said to abound in this whole district, and hence the name (Numbers 34:4). It is called “Maaleh-acrabbim” in Joshua 15:3, and “the ascent of Akrabbim” in Numbers 34:4.ETI Akrabbim.2


    Alabaster — occurs only in the New Testament in connection with the box of “ointment of spikenard very precious,” with the contents of which a woman anointed the head of Jesus as he sat at supper in the house of Simon the leper (Matthew 26:7; Mark 14:3; Luke 7:37). These boxes were made from a stone found near Alabastron in Egypt, and from this circumstance the Greeks gave them the name of the city where they were made. The name was then given to the stone of which they were made; and finally to all perfume vessels, of whatever material they were formed. The woman “broke” the vessel; i.e., she broke off, as was usually done, the long and narrow neck so as to reach the contents. This stone resembles marble, but is softer in its texture, and hence very easily wrought into boxes. Mark says (Mark 14:5) that this box of ointment was worth more than 300 pence, i.e., denarii, each of the value of sevenpence halfpenny of our money, and therefore worth about 10 pounds. But if we take the denarius as the day’s wage of a labourer (Matthew 20:2), say two shillings of our money, then the whole would be worth about 30 pounds, so costly was Mary’s offering.ETI Alabaster.2


    Alamoth — virgins, a musical term (1 Chronicles 15:20), denoting that the psalm which bears this inscription (Psalm 46) was to be sung by soprano or female voices.ETI Alamoth.2


    Alarm — a particular quivering sound of the silver trumpets to give warning to the Hebrews on their journey through the wilderness (Numbers 10:5, Numbers 10:6), a call to arms, or a war-note (Jeremiah 4:19; Jeremiah 49:2; Zephaniah 1:16).ETI Alarm.2


    Alemeth — covering. (1.) One of the nine sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin (1 Chronicles 7:8).ETI Alemeth.2

    (2.) One of the sons of Jehoadah, or Jarah, son of Ahaz (1 Chronicles 8:36).ETI Alemeth.3

    (3.) A sacerdotal city of Benjamin (1 Chronicles 6:60), called also Almon (Joshua 21:18), now Almit, a mile north-east of the ancient Anathoth.ETI Alemeth.4


    Alexander — man-defender. (1.) A relative of Annas the high priest, present when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Acts 4:6).ETI Alexander.2

    (2.) A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of Christ (Mark 15:21).ETI Alexander.3

    (3.) A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33). The Jews put him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no sympathy with Paul any more than the Ephesians had. It is possible that this man was the same as the following.ETI Alexander.4

    (4.) A coppersmith who, with Hymenaeus and others, promulgated certain heresies regarding the resurrection (1 Timothy 1:19; 2 Timothy 4:14), and made shipwreck of faith and of a good conscience. Paul excommunicated him (1 Timothy 1:20; comp. 1 Corinthians 5:5).ETI Alexander.5

    Alexander the Great

    Alexander the Great — the king of Macedonia, the great conqueror; probably represented in Daniel by the “belly of brass” (Daniel 2:32), and the leopard and the he-goat (Daniel 7:6; Daniel 11:3,Daniel 11:4cceeded his father Philip, and died at the age of thirty-two from the effects of intemperance, B.C. 323. His empire was divided among his four generals.ETI Alexander the Great.2


    Alexandria — the ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its founder, Alexander the Great (about B.C. 333). It was for a long period the greatest of existing cities, for both Nineveh and Babylon had been destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to greatness. It was the residence of the kings of Egypt for 200 years. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and only incidentally in the New. Apollos, eloquent and mighty in the Scriptures, was a native of this city (Acts 18:24). Many Jews from Alexandria were in Jerusalem, where they had a synagogue (Acts 6:9), at the time of Stephen’s martyrdom. At one time it is said that as many as 10,000 Jews resided in this city. It possessed a famous library of 700,000 volumes, which was burned by the Saracens (A.D. 642). It was here that the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek. This is called the Septuagint version, from the tradition that seventy learned men were engaged in executing it. It was, however, not all translated at one time. It was begun B.C. 280, and finished about B.C. 200 or 150. (See VERSION.)ETI Alexandria.2


    Algum — (2 Chronicles 2:8; 2 Chronicles 9:10,2 Chronicles 9:11), the same as almug (1 Kings 10:11).ETI Algum.2


    Alien — a foreigner, or person born in another country, and therefore not entitled to the rights and privileges of the country where he resides. Among the Hebrews there were two classes of aliens.ETI Alien.2

    (1.) Those who were strangers generally, and who owned no landed property.ETI Alien.3

    (2.) Strangers dwelling in another country without being naturalized (Leviticus 22:10; Psalm 39:12).ETI Alien.4

    Both of these classes were to enjoy, under certain conditions, the same rights as other citizens (Leviticus 19:33, Leviticus 19:34; Deuteronomy 10:19). They might be naturalized and permitted to enter into the congregation of the Lord by submitting to circumcision and abandoning idolatry (Deuteronomy 23:3-8).ETI Alien.5

    This term is used (Ephesians 2:12) to denote persons who have no interest in Christ.ETI Alien.6


    Allegory — used only in Galatians 4:24, where the apostle refers to the history of Isaac the free-born, and Ishmael the slave-born, and makes use of it allegorically.ETI Allegory.2

    Every parable is an allegory. Nathan (2 Samuel 12:1-4) addresses David in an allegorical narrative. In the eightieth Psalm there is a beautiful allegory: “Thou broughtest a vine out of Egypt,” etc. In Ecclesiastes 12:2-6, there is a striking allegorical description of old age.ETI Allegory.3


    Alleluia — the Greek form (Revelation 19:1, Revelation 19:3, Revelation 19:4, Revelation 19:6) of the Hebrew Hallelujah = Praise ye Jehovah, which begins or ends several of the psalms (Psalm 106, Psalm 111, Psalm 112, Psalm 113, etc.).ETI Alleluia.2


    Alliance — a treaty between nations, or between individuals, for their mutual advantage.ETI Alliance.2

    Abraham formed an alliance with some of the Canaanitish princes (Genesis 14:13), also with Abimelech (Genesis 21:22-32). Joshua and the elders of Israel entered into an alliance with the Gibeonites (Joshua 9:3-27). When the Israelites entered Palestine they were forbidden to enter into alliances with the inhabitants of the country (Leviticus 18:3, Leviticus 18:4; Leviticus 20:22, Leviticus 20:23).ETI Alliance.3

    Solomon formed a league with Hiram (1 Kings 5:12). This “brotherly covenant” is referred to 250 years afterwards (Amos 1:9). He also appears to have entered into an alliance with Pharaoh (1 Kings 10:28, 1 Kings 10:29).ETI Alliance.4

    In the subsequent history of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel various alliances were formed between them and also with neighbouring nations at different times.ETI Alliance.5

    From patriarchal times a covenant of alliance was sealed by the blood of some sacrificial victim. The animal sacrificed was cut in two (except birds), and between these two parts the persons contracting the alliance passed (Genesis 15:10). There are frequent allusions to this practice (Jeremiah 34:18). Such alliances were called “covenants of salt” (Numbers 18:19; 2 Chronicles 13:5), salt being the symbol of perpetuity. A pillar was set up as a memorial of the alliance between Laban and Jacob (Genesis 31:52). The Jews throughout their whole history attached great importance to fidelity to their engagements. Divine wrath fell upon the violators of them (Joshua 9:18; 2 Samuel 21:1, 2 Samuel 21:2; Ezekiel 17:16).ETI Alliance.6


    Allon — oak. (1.) The expression in the Authorized Version of Joshua 19:33, “from Allon to Zaanannim,” is more correctly rendered in the Revised Version, “from the oak in Zaanannim.” The word denotes some remarkable tree which stood near Zaanannim, and which served as a landmark.ETI Allon.2

    (2.) The son of Jedaiah, of the family of the Simeonites, who expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor (1 Chronicles 4:37).ETI Allon.3


    Allon-Bachuth — oak of weeping, a tree near Bethel, at the spot where Deborah, Rebekah’s nurse, was buried (Genesis 35:8). Large trees, from their rarity in the plains of Palestine, were frequently designated as landmarks. This particular tree was probably the same as the “palm tree of Deborah” (Judges 4:5).ETI Allon-Bachuth.2


    Almodad — immeasurable, the first named of the sons of Joktan (Genesis 10:26), the founder of an Arabian tribe.ETI Almodad.2


    Almon — hidden, one of the sacerdotal cities of Benjamin (Joshua 21:18), called also Alemeth (1 Chronicles 6:60).ETI Almon.2


    Almond — a native of Syria and Palestine. In form, blossoms, and fruit it resembles the peach tree. Its blossoms are of a very pale pink colour, and appear before its leaves. Its Hebrew name, shaked, signifying “wakeful, hastening,” is given to it on account of its putting forth its blossoms so early, generally in February, and sometimes even in January. In Ecclesiastes 12:5, it is referred to as illustrative, probably, of the haste with which old age comes. There are others, however, who still contend for the old interpretation here. “The almond tree bears its blossoms in the midst of winter, on a naked, leafless stem, and these blossoms (reddish or flesh-coloured in the beginning) seem at the time of their fall exactly like white snow-flakes. In this way the almond blossom is a very fitting symbol of old age, with its silvery hair and its wintry, dry, barren, unfruitful condition.” In Jeremiah 1:11 “I see a rod of an almond tree [shaked] … for I will hasten [shaked] my word to perform it” the word is used as an emblem of promptitude. Jacob desired his sons (Genesis 43:11) to take with them into Egypt of the best fruits of the land, almonds, etc., as a present to Joseph, probably because this tree was not a native of Egypt. Aaron’s rod yielded almonds (Numbers 17:8; Hebrews 9:4). Moses was directed to make certain parts of the candlestick for the ark of carved work “like unto almonds” (Exodus 25:33, Exodus 25:34). The Hebrew word luz, translated “hazel” in the Authorized Version (Genesis 30:37), is rendered in the Revised Version “almond.” It is probable that luz denotes the wild almond, while shaked denotes the cultivated variety.ETI Almond.2


    Alms — Not found in the Old Testament, but repeatedly in the New. The Mosaic legislation (Leviticus 25:35; Deuteronomy 15:7) tended to promote a spirit of charity, and to prevent the occurrence of destitution among the people. Such passages as these, Psalm 41:1; Psalm 112:9; Proverbs 14:31; Isaiah 10:2; Amos 2:7; Jeremiah 5:28; Ezekiel 22:29, would also naturally foster the same benevolent spirit.ETI Alms.2

    In the time of our Lord begging was common (Mark 10:46; Acts 3:2). The Pharisees were very ostentatious in their almsgivings (Matthew 6:2). The spirit by which the Christian ought to be actuated in this duty is set forth in 1 John 3:17. A regard to the state of the poor and needy is enjoined as a Christian duty (Luke 3:11; Luke 6:30; Matthew 6:1; Acts 9:36; Acts 10:2, Acts 10:4), a duty which was not neglected by the early Christians (Luke 14:13; Acts 20:35; Galatians 2:10; Romans 15:25-27; 1 Corinthians 16:1-4). They cared not only for the poor among themselves, but contributed also to the necessities of those at a distance (Acts 11:29; Acts 24:17; 2 Corinthians 9:12). Our Lord and his attendants showed an example also in this (John 13:29).ETI Alms.3

    In modern times the “poor-laws” have introduced an element which modifies considerably the form in which we may discharge this Christian duty.ETI Alms.4


    Almug — (1 Kings 10:11, 1 Kings 10:12) = algum (2 Chronicles 2:8; 2 Chronicles 9:10, 2 Chronicles 9:11), in the Hebrew occurring only in the plural almuggim (indicating that the wood was brought in planks), the name of a wood brought from Ophir to be used in the building of the temple, and for other purposes. Some suppose it to have been the white sandal-wood of India, the Santalum album of botanists, a native of the mountainous parts of the Malabar coasts. It is a fragrant wood, and is used in China for incense in idol-worship. Others, with some probability, think that it was the Indian red sandal-wood, the pterocarpus santalinus, a heavy, fine-grained wood, the Sanscrit name of which is valguka. It is found on the Coromandel coast and in Ceylon.ETI Almug.2


    Aloes — (Heb. ˒ahalim), a fragrant wood (Numbers 24:6; Psalm 45:8; Proverbs 7:17; Song of Solomon 4:14), the Aquilaria agallochum of botanists, or, as some suppose, the costly gum or perfume extracted from the wood. It is found in China, Siam, and Northern India, and grows to the height sometimes of 120 feet. This species is of great rarity even in India. There is another and more common species, called by Indians aghil, whence Europeans have given it the name of Lignum aquile, or eagle-wood. Aloewood was used by the Egyptians for embalming dead bodies. Nicodemus brought it (pounded aloe-wood) to embalm the body of Christ (John 19:39); but whether this was the same as that mentioned elsewhere is uncertain.ETI Aloes.2

    The bitter aloes of the apothecary is the dried juice of the leaves Aloe vulgaris.ETI Aloes.3


    Alphaeus — (1.) The father of James the Less, the apostle and writer of the epistle (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13), and the husband of Mary (John 19:25). The Hebrew form of this name is Cleopas, or Clopas (q.v.).ETI Alphaeus.2

    (2.) The father of Levi, or Matthew (Mark 2:14).ETI Alphaeus.3


    Altar — (Heb. mizbe˒ah, from a word meaning “to slay”), any structure of earth (Exodus 20:24) or unwrought stone (Exodus 20:25) on which sacrifices were offered. Altars were generally erected in conspicuous places (Genesis 22:9; Ezekiel 6:3; 2 Kings 23:12; 2 Kings 16:4; 2 Kings 23:8; Acts 14:13). The word is used in Hebrews 13:10 for the sacrifice offered upon it—the sacrifice Christ offered.ETI Altar.2

    Paul found among the many altars erected in Athens one bearing the inscription, “To the unknown God” (Acts 17:23), or rather “to an [i.e., some] unknown God.” The reason for this inscription cannot now be accurately determined. It afforded the apostle the occasion of proclaiming the gospel to the “men of Athens.”ETI Altar.3

    The first altar we read of is that erected by Noah (Genesis 8:20). Altars were erected by Abraham (Genesis 12:7; Genesis 13:4; Genesis 22:9), by Isaac (Genesis 26:25), by Jacob (Genesis 33:20; Genesis 35:1, Genesis 35:3), and by Moses (Exodus 17:15, “Jehovah-nissi”).ETI Altar.4

    In the tabernacle, and afterwards in the temple, two altars were erected.ETI Altar.5

    (1.) The altar of burnt offering (Exodus 30:28), called also the “brasen altar” (Exodus 39:39) and “the table of the Lord” (Malachi 1:7).ETI Altar.6

    This altar, as erected in the tabernacle, is described in Exodus 27:1-8. It was a hollow square, 5 cubits in length and in breadth, and 3 cubits in height. It was made of shittim wood, and was overlaid with plates of brass. Its corners were ornamented with “horns” (Exodus 29:12; Leviticus 4:18).ETI Altar.7

    In Exodus 27:3 the various utensils appertaining to the altar are enumerated. They were made of brass. (Comp. 1 Samuel 2:13, 1 Samuel 2:14; Leviticus 16:12; Numbers 16:6, Numbers 16:7.)ETI Altar.8

    In Solomon’s temple the altar was of larger dimensions (2 Chronicles 4:1. Comp. 1 Kings 8:22, 1 Kings 8:64; 1 Kings 9:25), and was made wholly of brass, covering a structure of stone or earth. This altar was renewed by Asa (2 Chronicles 15:8). It was removed by Ahaz (2 Kings 16:14), and “cleansed” by Hezekiah, in the latter part of whose reign it was rebuilt. It was finally broken up and carried away by the Babylonians (Jeremiah 52:17).ETI Altar.9

    After the return from captivity it was re-erected (Ezra 3:3, Ezra 3:6) on the same place where it had formerly stood. (Comp. 1 Maccabees 4:47.) When Antiochus Epiphanes pillaged Jerusalem the altar of burnt offering was taken away.ETI Altar.10

    Again the altar was erected by Herod, and remained in its place till the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (70 A.D.).ETI Altar.11

    The fire on the altar was not permitted to go out (Leviticus 6:9).ETI Altar.12

    In the Mosque of Omar, immediately underneath the great dome, which occupies the site of the old temple, there is a rough projection of the natural rock, of about 60 feet in its extreme length, and 50 in its greatest breadth, and in its highest part about 4 feet above the general pavement. This rock seems to have been left intact when Solomon’s temple was built. It was in all probability the site of the altar of burnt offering. Underneath this rock is a cave, which may probably have been the granary of Araunah’s threshing-floor (1 Chronicles 21:22).ETI Altar.13

    (2.) The altar of incense (Exodus 30:1-10), called also “the golden altar” (Exodus 39:38; Numbers 4:11), stood in the holy place “before the vail that is by the ark of the testimony.” On this altar sweet spices were continually burned with fire taken from the brazen altar. The morning and the evening services were commenced by the high priest offering incense on this altar. The burning of the incense was a type of prayer (Psalm 141:2; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 8:3, Revelation 8:4).ETI Altar.14

    This altar was a small movable table, made of acacia wood overlaid with gold (Exodus 37:25, Exodus 37:26). It was 1 cubit in length and breadth, and 2 cubits in height.ETI Altar.15

    In Solomon’s temple the altar was similar in size, but was made of cedar-wood (1 Kings 6:20; 1 Kings 7:48) overlaid with gold. In Ezekiel 41:22 it is called “the altar of wood.” (Comp. Exodus 30:1-6.)ETI Altar.16

    In the temple built after the Exile the altar was restored. Antiochus Epiphanes took it away, but it was afterwards restored by Judas Maccabaeus (1 Maccabees 1:23; 1 Maccabees 4:49). Among the trophies carried away by Titus on the destruction of Jerusalem the altar of incense is not found, nor is any mention made of it in Hebrews 9. It was at this altar Zacharias ministered when an angel appeared to him (Luke 1:11). It is the only altar which appears in the heavenly temple (Isaiah 6:6; Revelation 8:3,Revelation 8:4).ETI Altar.17


    Altaschith — destroy not, the title of Psalm 57, Psalm 58, Psalm 59, and Psalm 75. It was probably the name of some song to the melody of which these psalms were to be chanted.ETI Altaschith.2


    Alush — one of the places, the last before Rephidim, at which the Hebrews rested on their way to Sinai (Numbers 33:13, Numbers 33:14). It was probably situated on the shore of the Red Sea.ETI Alush.2


    Amalek — dweller in a valley, the son of Eliphaz and grandson of Esau (Genesis 36:12; 1 Chronicles 1:36); the chief of an Idumean tribe (Genesis 36:16). His mother was a Horite, a tribe whose territory the descendants of Esau had seized.ETI Amalek.2


    Amalekite — a tribe that dwelt in Arabia Petraea, between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea. They were not the descendants of Amalek, the son of Eliphaz, for they existed in the days of Abraham (Genesis 14:7). They were probably a tribe that migrated from the shores of the Persian Gulf and settled in Arabia. “They dwelt in the land of the south … from Havilah until thou comest to Shur” (Numbers 13:29; 1 Samuel 15:7). They were a pastoral, and hence a nomadic race. Their kings bore the hereditary name of Agag (Numbers 24:7; 1 Samuel 15:8). They attempted to stop the Israelites when they marched through their territory (Deuteronomy 25:18), attacking them at Rephidim (Exodus 17:8-13; comp. Deuteronomy 25:17; 1 Samuel 15:2). They afterwards attacked the Israelites at Hormah (Numbers 14:45). We read of them subsequently as in league with the Moabites (Judges 3:13) and the Midianites (Judges 6:3). Saul finally desolated their territory and destroyed their power (1 Samuel 14:48; 1 Samuel 15:3), and David recovered booty from them (1 Samuel 30:18-20). In the Babylonian inscriptions they are called Sute, in those of Egypt Sittiu, and the Amarna tablets include them under the general name of Khabbati, or “plunderers.”ETI Amalekite.2


    Amana — perennial. (1.) The Hebrew margin of 2 Kings 5:12 gives this as another reading of Abana (q.v.), a stream near Damascus.ETI Amana.2

    (2.) A mountain (Song of Solomon 4:8), probably the southern summit of Anti-Libanus, at the base of which are the sources of the Abana.ETI Amana.3


    Amariah — said by Jehovah. (1.) One of the descendants of Aaron by Eleazar (1 Chronicles 6:7,1 Chronicles 6:52). He was probably the last of the high priests of Eleazar’s line prior to the transfer of that office to Eli, of the line of Ithamar.ETI Amariah.2

    (2.) A Levite, son of Hebron, of the lineage of Moses (1 Chronicles 23:19; 1 Chronicles 24:23).ETI Amariah.3

    (3.) A “chief priest” who took an active part in the reformation under Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 19:11); probably the same as mentioned in 1 Chronicles 6:9.ETI Amariah.4

    (4.) 1 Chronicles 6:11; Ezra 7:3. (5.) One of the high priests in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 31:15). (6.) Zephaniah 1:1. (7.) Nehemiah 11:4. (8.) Nehemiah 10:3. (9.) Ezra 10:42.ETI Amariah.5


    Amasa — burden. (1.) The son of Abigail, a sister of king David (1 Chronicles 2:17; 2 Samuel 17:25). He was appointed by David to command the army in room of his cousin Joab (2 Samuel 19:13), who afterwards treacherously put him to death as a dangerous rival (2 Samuel 20:4-12).ETI Amasa.2

    (2.) A son of Hadlai, and chief of Ephraim (2 Chronicles 28:12) in the reign of Ahaz.ETI Amasa.3


    Amasai — burdensome. (1.) A Levite, son of Elkanah, of the ancestry of Samuel (1 Chronicles 6:25, 1 Chronicles 6:35).ETI Amasai.2

    (2.) The leader of a body of men who joined David in the “stronghold,” probably of Adullam (1 Chronicles 12:18).ETI Amasai.3

    (3.) One of the priests appointed to precede the ark with blowing of trumpets on its removal from the house of Obed-edom (1 Chronicles 15:24).ETI Amasai.4

    (4.) The father of a Levite, one of the two Kohathites who took a prominent part at the instance of Hezekiah in the cleansing of the temple (2 Chronicles 29:12).ETI Amasai.5


    Amashai — the son of Azareel, appointed by Nehemiah to reside at Jerusalem and do the work of the temple (Nehemiah 11:13).ETI Amashai.2


    Amasiah — burden of (i.e., “sustained by”) Jehovah, the “son of Zichri, who willingly offered himself unto the Lord,” a captain over thousands under Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 17:16; comp. Judges 5:9).ETI Amasiah.2


    Amaziah — strengthened by Jehovah. (1.) A Levite, son of Hilkiah, of the descendants of Ethan the Merarite (1 Chronicles 6:45).ETI Amaziah.2

    (2.) The son and successor of Joash, and eighth king of the separate kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 14:1-4). He began his reign by punishing the murderers of his father (2 Kings 14:5-7; 2 Chronicles 25:3-5). He was the first to employ a mercenary army of 100,000 Israelite soldiers, which he did in his attempt to bring the Edomites again under the yoke of Judah (2 Chronicles 25:5, 2 Chronicles 25:6). He was commanded by a prophet of the Lord to send back the mercenaries, which he did (2 Chronicles 25:7-10, 2 Chronicles 25:13), much to their annoyance. His obedience to this command was followed by a decisive victory over the Edomites (2 Chronicles 25:14-16). Amaziah began to worship some of the idols he took from the Edomites, and this was his ruin, for he was vanquished by Joash, king of Israel, whom he challenged to battle. The disaster he thus brought upon Judah by his infatuation in proclaiming war against Israel probably occasioned the conspiracy by which he lost his life (2 Kings 14:8-14, 2 Kings 14:19). He was slain at Lachish, whither he had fled, and his body was brought upon horses to Jerusalem, where it was buried in the royal sepulchre (2 Kings 14:19, 2 Kings 14:20; 2 Chronicles 25:27, 2 Chronicles 25:28).ETI Amaziah.3

    (3.) A priest of the golden calves at Bethel (Amos 7:10-17).ETI Amaziah.4

    (4.) The father of Joshah, one of the Simeonite chiefs in the time of Hezekiah (1 Chronicles 4:34).ETI Amaziah.5


    Ambassador — In the Old Testament the Hebrew word tsir, meaning “one who goes on an errand,” is rendered thus (Joshua 9:4; Proverbs 13:17; Isaiah 18:2; Jeremiah 49:14; Obadiah 1). This is also the rendering of melits, meaning “an interpreter,” in 2 Chronicles 32:31; and of malak, a “messenger,” in 2 Chronicles 35:21; Isaiah 30:4; Isaiah 33:7; Ezekiel 17:15. This is the name used by the apostle as designating those who are appointed by God to declare his will (2 Corinthians 5:20; Ephesians 6:20). ETI Ambassador.2

    The Hebrews on various occasions and for various purposes had recourse to the services of ambassadors, e.g., to contract alliances (Joshua 9:4), to solicit favours (Numbers 20:14), to remonstrate when wrong was done (Judges 11:12), to condole with a young king on the death of his father (2 Samuel 10:2), and to congratulate a king on his accession to the throne (1 Kings 5:1).ETI Ambassador.3

    To do injury to an ambassador was to insult the king who sent him (2 Samuel 10:5).ETI Ambassador.4


    Amber — (Ezekiel 1:4, Ezekiel 1:27; Ezekiel 8:2. Heb., hashmal, rendered by the LXX. elektron, and by the Vulgate electrum), a metal compounded of silver and gold. Some translate the word by “polished brass,” others “fine brass,” as in Revelation 1:15; Revelation 2:18. It was probably the mixture now called electrum. The word has no connection, however, with what is now called amber, which is a gummy substance, reckoned as belonging to the mineral kingdom though of vegetable origin, a fossil resin.ETI Amber.2


    Ambush — Joshua at the capture of Ai lay in ambush, and so deceived the inhabitants that he gained an easy victory (Joshua 8:4-26). Shechem was taken in this manner (Judges 9:30-45. Comp. Jeremiah 51:12).ETI Ambush.2


    Amen — This Hebrew word means firm, and hence also faithful (Revelation 3:14). In Isaiah 65:16, the Authorized Version has “the God of truth,” which in Hebrew is “the God of Amen.” It is frequently used by our Saviour to give emphasis to his words, where it is translated “verily.” Sometimes, only, however, in John’s Gospel, it is repeated, “Verily, verily.” It is used as an epithet of the Lord Jesus Christ (Revelation 3:14).ETI Amen.2

    It is found singly and sometimes doubly at the end of prayers (Psalm 41:13; Psalm 72:19; Psalm 89:52), to confirm the words and invoke the fulfilment of them. It is used in token of being bound by an oath (Numbers 5:22; Deuteronomy 27:15-26; Nehemiah 5:13; Nehemiah 8:6; 1 Chronicles 16:36). In the primitive churches it was common for the general audience to say “Amen” at the close of the prayer (1 Corinthians 14:16).ETI Amen.3

    The promises of God are Amen; i.e., they are all true and sure (2 Corinthians 1:20).ETI Amen.4


    Amethyst — one of the precious stones in the breastplate of the high priest (Exodus 28:19; Exodus 39:12), and in the foundation of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:20). The ancients thought that this stone had the power of dispelling drunkenness in all who wore or touched it, and hence its Greek name formed from a, “privative,” and methuo, “to get drunk.” Its Jewish name, ahlamah˒, was derived by the rabbins from the Hebrew word halam, “to dream,” from its supposed power of causing the wearer to dream. ETI Amethyst.2

    It is a pale-blue crystallized quartz, varying to a dark purple blue. It is found in Persia and India, also in different parts of Europe.ETI Amethyst.3


    Amittai — true, the father of Jonah the prophet, a native of Gath-hepher (2 Kings 14:25; Jonah 1:1).ETI Amittai.2

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