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    Herod Philip II. — Hyssop

    Herod Philip II.

    Herod Philip II. — the son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem. He was “tetrarch” of Batanea, Iturea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. He rebuilt the city of Caesarea Philippi, calling it by his own name to distinguish it from the Caesarea on the sea-coast which was the seat of the Roman government. He married Salome, the daughter of Herodias (Matthew 16:13; Mark 8:27; Luke 3:1).ETI Herod Philip II..2

    Herod the Great

    Herod the Great — (Matthew 2:1-22; Luke 1:5; Acts 23:35), the son of Antipater, an Idumaean, and Cypros, an Arabian of noble descent. In the year 47 Julius Caesar made Antipater, a “wily Idumaean,” procurator of Judea, who divided his territories between his four sons, Galilee falling to the lot of Herod, who was afterwards appointed tetrarch of Judea by Mark Antony ( 40), and also king of Judea by the Roman senate.ETI Herod the Great.2

    He was of a stern and cruel disposition. “He was brutish and a stranger to all humanity.” Alarmed by the tidings of one “born King of the Jews,” he sent forth and “slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under” (Matthew 2:16). He was fond of splendour, and lavished great sums in rebuilding and adorning the cities of his empire. He rebuilt the city of Caesarea (q.v.) on the coast, and also the city of Samaria (q.v.), which he called Sebaste, in honour of Augustus. He restored the ruined temple of Jerusalem, a work which was begun B.C. 20, but was not finished till after Herod’s death, probably not till about A.D. 50 (John 2:20). After a troubled reign of thirty-seven years, he died at Jericho amid great agonies both of body and mind, B.C. 4, i.e., according to the common chronology, in the year in which Jesus was born.ETI Herod the Great.3

    After his death his kingdom was divided among three of his sons. Of these, Philip had the land east of Jordan, between Caesarea Philippi and Bethabara, Antipas had Galilee and Peraea, while Archelaus had Judea and Samaria.ETI Herod the Great.4


    Heron — (Leviticus 11:19; Deuteronomy 14:18), ranked among the unclean birds. The Hebrew name is ˒anaphah, and indicates that the bird so named is remarkable for its angry disposition. “The herons are wading-birds, peculiarly irritable, remarkable for their voracity, frequenting marshes and oozy rivers, and spread over the regions of the East.” The Ardea russeta, or little golden egret, is the commonest species in Asia.ETI Heron.2


    Heshbon — intelligence, a city ruled over by Sihon, king of the Amorites (Joshua 3:10; Joshua 13:17). It was taken by Moses (Numbers 21:23-26), and became afterwards a Levitical city (Joshua 21:39) in the tribe of Reuben (Numbers 32:37). After the Exile it was taken possession of by the Moabites (Isaiah 15:4; Jeremiah 48:2, Jeremiah 48:34, Jeremiah 48:45). The ruins of this town are still seen about 20 miles east of Jordan from the north end of the Dead Sea. There are reservoirs in this district, which are probably the “fishpools” referred to in Song of Solomon 7:4.ETI Heshbon.2


    Heshmon — fatness, a town in the south of Judah (Joshua 15:27).ETI Heshmon.2


    Heth — dread, a descendant of Canaan, and the ancestor of the Hittites (Genesis 10:18; Deuteronomy 7:1), who dwelt in the vicinity of Hebron (Genesis 23:3, Genesis 23:7). The Hittites were a Hamitic race. They are called “the sons of Heth” (Genesis 23:3, Genesis 23:5, Genesis 23:7, Genesis 23:10, Genesis 23:16, Genesis 23:18, Genesis 23:20).ETI Heth.2


    Hethlon — wrapped up, a place on the north border of Palestine. The “way of Hethlon” (Ezekiel 47:15; Ezekiel 48:1) is probably the pass at the end of Lebanon from the Mediterranean to the great plain of Hamath (q.v.), or the “entrance of Hamath.”ETI Hethlon.2


    Hezekiah — whom Jehovah has strengthened. (1.) Son of Ahaz (2 Kings 18:1; 2 Chronicles 29:1), whom he succeeded on the throne of the kingdom of Judah. He reigned twenty-nine years (B.C. 726-697). The history of this king is contained in 2 Kings 18:20, Isaiah 36-39, and 2 Chronicles 29-32. He is spoken of as a great and good king. In public life he followed the example of his great-granfather Uzziah. He set himself to abolish idolatry from his kingdom, and among other things which he did for this end, he destroyed the “brazen serpent,” which had been removed to Jerusalem, and had become an object of idolatrous worship (Numbers 21:9). A great reformation was wrought in the kingdom of Judah in his day (2 Kings 18:4; 2 Chronicles 29:3-36).ETI Hezekiah.2

    On the death of Sargon and the accession of his son Sennacherib to the throne of Assyria, Hezekiah refused to pay the tribute which his father had paid, and “rebelled against the king of Assyria, and served him not,” but entered into a league with Egypt (Isaiah 30; Isaiah 31; Isaiah 36:6-9). This led to the invasion of Judah by Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:13-16), who took forty cities, and besieged Jerusalem with mounds. Hezekiah yielded to the demands of the Assyrian king, and agreed to pay him three hundred talents of silver and thirty of gold (2 Kings 18:14).ETI Hezekiah.3

    But Sennacherib dealt treacherously with Hezekiah (Isaiah 33:1), and a second time within two years invaded his kingdom (2 Kings 18:17; 2 Chronicles 32:9; Isaiah 36). This invasion issued in the destruction of Sennacherib’s army. Hezekiah prayed to God, and “that night the angel of the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians 185,000 men.” Sennacherib fled with the shattered remnant of his forces to Nineveh, where, seventeen years after, he was assassinated by his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer (2 Kings 19:37). (See SENNACHERIB.)ETI Hezekiah.4

    The narrative of Hezekiah’s sickness and miraculous recovery is found in 2 Kings 20:1, 2 Chronicles 32:24, Isaiah 38:1. Various ambassadors came to congratulate him on his recovery, and among them Merodach-baladan, the viceroy of Babylon (2 Chronicles 32:23; 2 Kings 20:12). He closed his days in peace and prosperity, and was succeeded by his son Manasseh. He was buried in the “chiefest of the sepulchres of the sons of David” (2 Chronicles 32:27-33). He had “after him none like him among all the kings of Judah, nor any that were before him” (2 Kings 18:5). (See ISAIAH.)ETI Hezekiah.5


    Hezion — vision, the father of Tabrimon, and grandfather of Ben-hadad, king of Syria (1 Kings 15:18).ETI Hezion.2


    Hezir — swine or strong. (1.) The head of the seventeenth course of the priests (1 Chronicles 24:15). (2.) Nehemiah 10:20, one who sealed Nehemiah’s covenant.ETI Hezir.2


    Hezro — a Carmelite, one of David’s warriors (1 Chronicles 11:37).ETI Hezro.2


    Hezron — enclosed. (1.) One of the sons of Reuben (Genesis 46:9; Exodus 6:14). (2.) The older of the two sons of Pharez (Genesis 46:12). (3.) A plain in the south of Judah, west of Kadesh-barnea (Joshua 15:3).ETI Hezron.2


    Hiddai — rejoicing of Jehovah, one of David’s thirty-seven guards (2 Samuel 23:30).ETI Hiddai.2


    Hiddekel — called by the Accadians id Idikla; i.e., “the river of Idikla”, the third of the four rivers of Paradise (Genesis 2:14). Gesenius interprets the word as meaning “the rapid Tigris.” The Tigris rises in the mountains of Armenia, 15 miles south of the source of the Euphrates, which, after pursuing a south-east course, it joins at Kurnah, about 50 miles above Bassorah. Its whole length is about 1,150 miles.ETI Hiddekel.2


    Hiel — life of (i.e., from) God, a native of Bethel, who built (i.e., fortified) Jericho some seven hundred years after its destruction by the Israelites. There fell on him for such an act the imprecation of Joshua (Joshua 6:26). He laid the foundation in his first-born, and set up the gates in his youngest son (1 Kings 16:34), i.e., during the progress of the work all his children died.ETI Hiel.2


    Hierapolis — sacred city, a city of Phrygia, where was a Christian church under the care of Epaphras (Colossians 4:12, Colossians 4:13). This church was founded at the same time as that of Colosse. It now bears the name of Pambuk-Kalek, i.e., “Cotton Castle”, from the white appearance of the cliffs at the base of which the ruins are found.ETI Hierapolis.2


    Higgaion — in Psalm 92:3 means the murmuring tone of the harp. In Psalm 9:16 it is a musical sign, denoting probably a pause in the instrumental interlude. In Psalm 19:14 the word is rendered “meditation;” and in Lamentations 3:62, “device” (R.V., “imagination”).ETI Higgaion.2

    High place

    High place — an eminence, natural or artificial, where worship by sacrifice or offerings was made (1 Kings 13:32; 2 Kings 17:29). The first altar after the Flood was built on a mountain (Genesis 8:20). Abraham also built an altar on a mountain (Genesis 12:7, Genesis 12:8). It was on a mountain in Gilead that Laban and Jacob offered sacrifices (Genesis 31:54). After the Israelites entered the Promised Land they were strictly enjoined to overthrow the high places of the Canaanites (Exodus 34:13; Deuteronomy 7:5; Deuteronomy 12:2, Deuteronomy 12:3), and they were forbidden to worship the Lord on high places (Deuteronomy 12:11-14), and were enjoined to use but one altar for sacrifices (Leviticus 17:3, Leviticus 17:4; Deuteronomy 12; Deuteronomy 16:21). The injunction against high places was, however, very imperfectly obeyed, and we find again and again mention made of them (2 Kings 14:4; 2 Kings 15:4, 2 Kings 15:35, etc.).ETI High place.2

    High priest

    High priest — Aaron was the first who was solemnly set apart to this office (Exodus 29:7; Exodus 30:23; Leviticus 8:12). He wore a peculiar dress, which on his death passed to his successor in office (Exodus 29:29, Exodus 29:30). Besides those garments which he wore in common with all priests, there were four that were peculiar to himself as high priest:ETI High priest.2

    (1.) The “robe” of the ephod, all of blue, of “woven work,” worn immediately under the ephod. It was without seam or sleeves. The hem or skirt was ornamented with pomegranates and golden bells, seventy-two of each in alternate order. The sounding of the bells intimated to the people in the outer court the time when the high priest entered into the holy place to burn incense before the Lord (Exodus 28).ETI High priest.3

    (2.) The “ephod” consisted of two parts, one of which covered the back and the other the breast, which were united by the “curious girdle.” It was made of fine twined linen, and ornamented with gold and purple. Each of the shoulder-straps was adorned with a precious stone, on which the names of the twelve tribes were engraved. This was the high priest’s distinctive vestment (1 Samuel 2:28; 1 Samuel 14:3; 1 Samuel 21:9; 1 Samuel 23:6, 1 Samuel 23:9; 1 Samuel 30:7).ETI High priest.4

    (3.) The “breastplate of judgment” (Exodus 28:6-12, Exodus 28:25-28; Exodus 39:2-7) of “cunning work.” It was a piece of cloth doubled, of one span square. It bore twelve precious stones, set in four rows of three in a row, which constituted the Urim and Thummim (q.v.). These stones had the names of the twelve tribes engraved on them. When the high priest, clothed with the ephod and the breastplate, inquired of the Lord, answers were given in some mysterious way by the Urim and Thummim (1 Samuel 14:3, 1 Samuel 14:18, 1 Samuel 14:19; 1 Samuel 23:2, 1 Samuel 23:4, 1 Samuel 23:9, 1 Samuel 23:11,1 Samuel 23:12; 1 Samuel 28:6; 2 Samuel 5:23).ETI High priest.5

    (4.) The “mitre,” or upper turban, a twisted band of eight yards of fine linen coiled into a cap, with a gold plate in front, engraved with “Holiness to the Lord,” fastened to it by a ribbon of blue.ETI High priest.6

    To the high priest alone it was permitted to enter the holy of holies, which he did only once a year, on the great Day of Atonement, for “the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest” (Hebrews 9; Hebrews 10). Wearing his gorgeous priestly vestments, he entered the temple before all the people, and then, laying them aside and assuming only his linen garments in secret, he entered the holy of holies alone, and made expiation, sprinkling the blood of the sin offering on the mercy seat, and offering up incense. Then resuming his splendid robes, he reappeared before the people (Leviticus 16). Thus the wearing of these robes came to be identified with the Day of Atonement.ETI High priest.7

    The office, dress, and ministration of the high priest were typical of the priesthood of our Lord (Hebrews 4:14; Hebrews 7:25; Hebrews 9:12, etc.).ETI High priest.8

    It is supposed that there were in all eighty-three high priests, beginning with Aaron (B.C. 1657) and ending with Phannias (A.D. 70). At its first institution the office of high priest was held for life (but comp. 1 Kings 2:27), and was hereditary in the family of Aaron (Numbers 3:10). The office continued in the line of Eleazar, Aaron’s eldest son, for two hundred and ninety-six years, when it passed to Eli, the first of the line of Ithamar, who was the fourth son of Aaron. In this line it continued to Abiathar, whom Solomon deposed, and appointed Zadok, of the family of Eleazar, in his stead (1 Kings 2:35), in which it remained till the time of the Captivity. After the Return, Joshua, the son of Josedek, of the family of Eleazar, was appointed to this office. After him the succession was changed from time to time under priestly or political influences.ETI High priest.9


    Highway — a raised road for public use. Such roads were not found in Palestine; hence the force of the language used to describe the return of the captives and the advent of the Messiah (Isaiah 11:16; Isaiah 35:8; Isaiah 40:3; Isaiah 62:10) under the figure of the preparation of a grand thoroughfare for their march.ETI Highway.2

    During their possession of Palestine the Romans constructed several important highways, as they did in all countries which they ruled.ETI Highway.3


    Hilkiah — portion of Jehovah. (1.) 1 Chronicles 6:54. (2.) 1 Chronicles 26:11. (3.) The father of Eliakim (2 Kings 18:18, 2 Kings 18:26, 2 Kings 18:37). (4.) The father of Gemariah (Jeremiah 29:3). (5.) The father of the prophet Jeremiah (Jeremiah 1:1).ETI Hilkiah.2

    (6.) The high priest in the reign of Josiah (1 Chronicles 6:13; Ezra 7:1). To him and his deputy (2 Kings 23:5), along with the ordinary priests and the Levites who had charge of the gates, was entrusted the purification of the temple in Jerusalem. While this was in progress, he discovered in some hidden corner of the building a book called the “book of the law” (2 Kings 22:8) and the “book of the covenant” (2 Kings 23:2). Some have supposed that this “book” was nothing else than the original autograph copy of the Pentateuch written by Moses (Deuteronomy 31:9-26). This remarkable discovery occurred in the eighteenth year of Josiah’s reign (B.C. 624), a discovery which permanently affected the whole subsequent history of Israel. (See JOSIAH ; SHAPHAN.)ETI Hilkiah.3

    (7.) Nehemiah 12:7. (8.) Nehemiah 8:4.ETI Hilkiah.4


    Hill — (1.) Heb. gib’eah, a curved or rounded hill, such as are common to Palestine (Psalm 65:12; Psalm 72:3; Psalm 114:4, Psalm 114:6).ETI Hill.2

    (2.) Heb. har, properly a mountain range rather than an individual eminence (Exodus 24:4, Exodus 24:12, Exodus 24:13, Exodus 24:18; Numbers 14:40, Numbers 14:44, Numbers 14:45). In Deuteronomy 1:7, Joshua 9:1; Joshua 10:40; Joshua 11:16, it denotes the elevated district of Judah, Benjamin, and Ephraim, which forms the watershed between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.ETI Hill.3

    (3.) Heb. ma’aleh in 1 Samuel 9:11. Authorized Version “hill” is correctly rendered in the Revised Version “ascent.”ETI Hill.4

    (4.) In Luke 9:37 the “hill” is the Mount of Transfiguration.ETI Hill.5


    Hillel — praising, a Pirathonite, father of the judge Abdon (Judges 12:13, Judges 12:15).ETI Hillel.2

    Hill of Evil Counsel

    Hill of Evil Counsel — on the south of the Valley of Hinnom. It is so called from a tradition that the house of the high priest Caiaphas, when the rulers of the Jews resolved to put Christ to death, stood here.ETI Hill of Evil Counsel.2


    Hind — Heb. ‘ayalah (2 Samuel 22:34; Psalm 18:33, etc.) and ‘ayeleth (Psalm 22, title), the female of the hart or stag. It is referred to as an emblem of activity (Genesis 49:21), gentleness (Proverbs 5:19), feminine modesty (Song of Solomon 2:7; Song of Solomon 3:5), earnest longing (Psalm 42:1), timidity (Psalm 29:9). In the title of Psalm 22, the word probably refers to some tune bearing that name.ETI Hind.2


    Hinge — (Heb. tsir, that on which a door revolves. “Doors in the East turn rather on pivots than on what we term hinges. In Syria, and especially in the Hauran, there are many ancient doors, consisting of stone slabs with pivots carved out of the same piece inserted in sockets above and below, and fixed during the building of the house” (Proverbs 26:14).ETI Hinge.2


    Hinnom — a deep, narrow ravine separating Mount Zion from the so-called “Hill of Evil Counsel.” It took its name from “some ancient hero, the son of Hinnom.” It is first mentioned in Joshua 15:8. It had been the place where the idolatrous Jews burned their children alive to Moloch and Baal. A particular part of the valley was called Tophet, or the “fire-stove,” where the children were burned. After the Exile, in order to show their abhorrence of the locality, the Jews made this valley the receptacle of the offal of the city, for the destruction of which a fire was, as is supposed, kept constantly burning there.ETI Hinnom.2

    The Jews associated with this valley these two ideas, (1) that of the sufferings of the victims that had there been sacrificed; and (2) that of filth and corruption. It became thus to the popular mind a symbol of the abode of the wicked hereafter. It came to signify hell as the place of the wicked. “It might be shown by infinite examples that the Jews expressed hell, or the place of the damned, by this word. The word Gehenna [the Greek contraction of Hinnom] was never used in the time of Christ in any other sense than to denote the place of future punishment.” About this fact there can be no question. In this sense the word is used eleven times in our Lord’s discourses (Matthew 23:33; Luke 12:5; Matthew 5:22, etc.).ETI Hinnom.3


    Hiram — high-born. (1.) Generally “Huram,” one of the sons of Bela (1 Chronicles 8:5).ETI Hiram.2

    (2.) Also “Huram” and “Horam,” king of Tyre. He entered into an alliance with David, and assisted him in building his palace by sending him able workmen, and also cedar-trees and fir-trees from Lebanon (2 Samuel 5:11; 1 Chronicles 14:1). After the death of David he entered into a similar alliance with Solomon, and assisted him greatly in building the temple (1 Kings 5:1; 1 Kings 9:11; 2 Chronicles 2:3). He also took part in Solomon’s traffic to the Eastern Seas (1 Kings 9:27; 1 Kings 10:11; 2 Chronicles 8:18; 2 Chronicles 9:10).ETI Hiram.3

    (3.) The “master workman” whom Hiram sent to Solomon. He was the son of a widow of Dan, and of a Tyrian father. In 2 Chronicles 2:13 “Huram my father” should be Huram Abi, the word “Abi” (rendered here “my father”) being regarded as a proper name, or it may perhaps be a title of distinction given to Huram, and equivalent to “master.” (Comp. 1 Kings 7:14; 2 Chronicles 4:16.) He cast the magnificent brazen works for Solomon’s temple in clay-beds in the valley of Jordan, between Succoth and Zarthan.ETI Hiram.4


    Hireling — a labourer employed on hire for a limited time (Job 7:1; Job 14:6; Mark 1:20). His wages were paid as soon as his work was over (Leviticus 19:13). In the time of our Lord a day’s wage was a “penny” (q.v.) i.e., a Roman denarius (Matthew 20:1-14).ETI Hireling.2


    Hiss — to express contempt (Job 27:23). The destruction of the temple is thus spoken of (1 Kings 9:8). Zechariah (Zechariah 10:8) speaks of the Lord gathering the house of Judah as it were with a hiss: “I will hiss for them.” This expression may be “derived from the noise made to attract bees in hiving, or from the sound naturally made to attract a person’s attention.”ETI Hiss.2


    Hittites — Palestine and Syria appear to have been originally inhabited by three different tribes. (1.) The Semites, living on the east of the isthmus of Suez. They were nomadic and pastoral tribes. (2.) The Phoenicians, who were merchants and traders; and (3.) the Hittites, who were the warlike element of this confederation of tribes. They inhabited the whole region between the Euphrates and Damascus, their chief cities being Carchemish on the Euphrates, and Kadesh, now Tell Neby Mendeh, in the Orontes valley, about six miles south of the Lake of Homs. These Hittites seem to have risen to great power as a nation, as for a long time they were formidable rivals of the Egyptian and Assyrian empires. In the book of Joshua they always appear as the dominant race to the north of Galilee.ETI Hittites.2

    Somewhere about the twenty-third century B.C. the Syrian confederation, led probably by the Hittites, arched against Lower Egypt, which they took possession of, making Zoan their capital. Their rulers were the Hyksos, or shepherd kings. They were at length finally driven out of Egypt. Rameses II. sought vengeance against the “vile Kheta,” as he called them, and encountered and defeated them in the great battle of Kadesh, four centuries after Abraham. (See JOSHUA.)ETI Hittites.3

    They are first referred to in Scripture in the history of Abraham, who bought from Ephron the Hittite the field and the cave of Machpelah (Genesis 15:20; Genesis 23:3-18). They were then settled at Kirjath-arba. From this tribe Esau took his first two wives (Genesis 26:34; Genesis 36:2).ETI Hittites.4

    They are afterwards mentioned in the usual way among the inhabitants of the Promised Land (Exodus 23:28). They were closely allied to the Amorites, and are frequently mentioned along with them as inhabiting the mountains of Palestine. When the spies entered the land they seem to have occupied with the Amorites the mountain region of Judah (Numbers 13:29). They took part with the other Canaanites against the Israelites (Joshua 9:1; Joshua 11:3).ETI Hittites.5

    After this there are few references to them in Scripture. Mention is made of “Ahimelech the Hittite” (1 Samuel 26:6), and of “Uriah the Hittite,” one of David’s chief officers (2 Samuel 23:39; 1 Chronicles 11:41). In the days of Solomon they were a powerful confederation in the north of Syria, and were ruled by “kings.” They are met with after the Exile still a distinct people (Ezra 9:1; comp. Nehemiah 13:23-28).ETI Hittites.6

    The Hebrew merchants exported horses from Egypt not only for the kings of Israel, but also for the Hittites (1 Kings 10:28, 1 Kings 10:29). From the Egyptian monuments we learn that “the Hittites were a people with yellow skins and ‘Mongoloid’ features, whose receding foreheads, oblique eyes, and protruding upper jaws are represented as faithfully on their own monuments as they are on those of Egypt, so that we cannot accuse the Egyptian artists of caricaturing their enemies. The Amorites, on the contrary, were a tall and handsome people. They are depicted with white skins, blue eyes, and reddish hair, all the characteristics, in fact, of the white race” (Sayce’s The Hittites). The original seat of the Hittite tribes was the mountain ranges of Taurus. They belonged to Asia Minor, and not to Syria.ETI Hittites.7


    Hivites — one of the original tribes scattered over Palestine, from Hermon to Gibeon in the south. The name is interpreted as “midlanders” or “villagers” (Genesis 10:17; 1 Chronicles 1:15). They were probably a branch of the Hittites. At the time of Jacob’s return to Canaan, Hamor the Hivite was the “prince of the land” (Genesis 24:2-28).ETI Hivites.2

    They are next mentioned during the Conquest (Joshua 9:7; Joshua 11:19). They principally inhabited the northern confines of Western Palestine (Joshua 11:3; Judges 3:3). A remnant of them still existed in the time of Solomon (1 Kings 9:20).ETI Hivites.3


    Hizkiah — an ancestor of the prophet Zephaniah (Zephaniah 1:1).ETI Hizkiah.2


    Hizkijah — (Nehemiah 10:17), one who sealed the covenant.ETI Hizkijah.2


    Hobab — beloved, the Kenite, has been usually identified with Jethro (q.v.), Exodus 18:5, Exodus 18:27; comp. Numbers 10:29, Numbers 10:30. In Judges 4:11, the word rendered “father-in-law” means properly any male relative by marriage (comp. Genesis 19:14, “son-in-law,” A.V.), and should be rendered “brother-in-law,” as in the R.V. His descendants followed Israel to Canaan (Numbers 10:29), and at first pitched their tents near Jericho, but afterwards settled in the south in the borders of Arad (Judges 1:8-11, Judges 1:16).ETI Hobab.2


    Hobah — hiding-place, a place to the north of Damascus, to which Abraham pursued Chedorlaomer and his confederates (Genesis 14:15).ETI Hobah.2


    Hodijah — majesty of Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in expounding the law (Nehemiah 8:7; Nehemiah 9:5). (2.) Nehemiah 10:18, a Levite who sealed the covenant.ETI Hodijah.2


    Hoglah — partridge, one of the daughters of Zelophehad the Gileadite, to whom portions were assigned by Moses (Numbers 26:33; Numbers 27:1; Numbers 36:11).ETI Hoglah.2


    Hoham — Jehovah impels, the king of Hebron who joined the league against Gibeon. He and his allies were defeated (Joshua 10:3, Joshua 10:5, Joshua 10:16-27).ETI Hoham.2


    Hold — a fortress, the name given to David’s lurking-places (1 Samuel 22:4, 1 Samuel 22:5; 1 Samuel 24:22).ETI Hold.2


    Holiness — in the highest sense belongs to God (Isaiah 6:3; Revelation 15:4), and to Christians as consecrated to God’s service, and in so far as they are conformed in all things to the will of God (Romans 6:19, Romans 6:22; Ephesians 1:4; Titus 1:8; 1 Peter 1:15). Personal holiness is a work of gradual development. It is carried on under many hindrances, hence the frequent admonitions to watchfulness, prayer, and perseverance (1 Corinthians 1:30; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Ephesians 4:23, Ephesians 4:24). (See SANCTIFICATION.)ETI Holiness.2

    Holy Ghost

    Holy Ghost — the third Person of the adorable Trinity.ETI Holy Ghost.2

    His personality is proved (1) from the fact that the attributes of personality, as intelligence and volition, are ascribed to him (John 14:17, John 14:26; John 15:26; 1 Corinthians 2:10, 1 Corinthians 2:11; 1 Corinthians 12:11). He reproves, helps, glorifies, intercedes (John 16:7-13; Romans 8:26). (2) He executes the offices peculiar only to a person. The very nature of these offices involves personal distinction (Luke 12:12; Acts 5:32; Acts 15:28; Acts 16:6; Acts 28:25; 1 Corinthians 2:13; Hebrews 2:4; Hebrews 3:7; 2 Peter 1:21).ETI Holy Ghost.3

    His divinity is established (1) from the fact that the names of God are ascribed to him (Exodus 17:7; Psalm 95:7; comp. Hebrews 3:7-11); and (2) that divine attributes are also ascribed to him, omnipresence (Psalm 139:7; Ephesians 2:17, Ephesians 2:18; 1 Corinthians 12:13); omniscience (1 Corinthians 2:10, 1 Corinthians 2:11); omnipotence (Luke 1:35; Romans 8:11); eternity (Hebrews 9:4). (3) Creation is ascribed to him (Genesis 1:2; Job 26:13; Psalm 104:30), and the working of miracles (Matthew 12:28; 1 Corinthians 12:9-11). (4) Worship is required and ascribed to him (Isaiah 6:3; Acts 28:25; Romans 9:1; Revelation 1:4; Matthew 28:19).ETI Holy Ghost.4

    Holy of holies

    Holy of holies — the second or interior portion of the tabernacle. It was left in total darkness. No one was permitted to enter it except the high priest, and that only once a year. It contained the ark of the covenant only (Exodus 25:10-16). It was in the form of a perfect cube of 20 cubits. (See TABERNACLE.)ETI Holy of holies.2

    Holy place

    Holy place — one of the two portions into which the tabernacle was divided (Exodus 26:31; Exodus 37:17-25; Hebrews 9:2). It was 20 cubits long and 10 in height and breadth. It was illuminated by the golden candlestick, as it had no opening to admit the light. It contained the table of showbread (Exodus 25:23-29) and the golden altar of incense (Exodus 30:1-11). It was divided from the holy of holies by a veil of the most costly materials and the brightest colours.ETI Holy place.2

    The arrangement of the temple (q.v.) was the same in this respect. In it the walls of hewn stone were wainscotted with cedar and overlaid with gold, and adorned with beautiful carvings. It was entered from the porch by folding doors overlaid with gold and richly embossed. Outside the holy place stood the great tank or “sea” of molten brass, supported by twelve oxen, three turned each way, capable of containing two thousand baths of water. Besides this there were ten lavers and the brazen altar of burnt sacrifice.ETI Holy place.3


    Homer — heap, the largest of dry measures, containing about 8 bushels or 1 quarter English = 10 ephahs (Leviticus 27:16; Numbers 11:32) = a COR. (See OMER.)ETI Homer.2

    “Half a homer,” a grain measure mentioned only in Hosea 3:2.ETI Homer.3


    Honey — (1.) Heb. ya’ar, occurs only 1 Samuel 14:25, 1 Samuel 14:27, 1 Samuel 14:29; Song of Solomon 5:1, where it denotes the honey of bees. Properly the word signifies a forest or copse, and refers to honey found in woods.ETI Honey.2

    (2.) Nopheth, honey that drops (Psalm 19:10; Proverbs 5:3; Song of Solomon 4:11).ETI Honey.3

    (3.) Debash denotes bee-honey (Judges 14:8); but also frequently a vegetable honey distilled from trees (Genesis 43:11; Ezekiel 27:17). In these passages it may probably mean “dibs,” or syrup of grapes, i.e., the juice of ripe grapes boiled down to one-third of its bulk.ETI Honey.4

    (4.) Tsuph, the cells of the honey-comb full of honey (Proverbs 16:24; Psalm 19:10).ETI Honey.5

    (5.) “Wild honey” (Matthew 3:4) may have been the vegetable honey distilled from trees, but rather was honey stored by bees in rocks or in trees (Deuteronomy 32:13; Psalm 81:16; 1 Samuel 14:25-29).ETI Honey.6

    Canaan was a “land flowing with milk and honey” (Exodus 3:8). Milk and honey were among the chief dainties in the earlier ages, as they are now among the Bedawin; and butter and honey are also mentioned among articles of food (Isaiah 7:15). The ancients used honey instead of sugar (Psalm 119:103; Proverbs 24:13); but when taken in great quantities it caused nausea, a fact referred to in Proverbs 25:16, Proverbs 25:17 to inculcate moderation in pleasures. Honey and milk also are put for sweet discourse (Song of Solomon 4:11).ETI Honey.7


    Hood — (Heb. tsaniph a tiara round the head (Isaiah 3:23; R.V., pl., “turbans”). Rendered “diadem,” Job 29:14; high priest’s “mitre,” Zechariah 3:5; “royal diadem,” Isaiah 62:3.ETI Hood.2


    Hoof — a cleft hoof as of neat cattle (Exodus 10:26; Ezekiel 32:13); hence also of the horse, though not cloven (Isaiah 5:28). The “parting of the hoof” is one of the distinctions between clean and unclean animals (Leviticus 11:3; Deuteronomy 14:7).ETI Hoof.2


    Hook — (1.) Heb. hah, a “ring” inserted in the nostrils of animals to which a cord was fastened for the purpose of restraining them (2 Kings 19:28; Isaiah 37:28, Isaiah 37:29; Ezekiel 29:4; Ezekiel 38:4). “The Orientals make use of this contrivance for curbing their work-beasts … When a beast becomes unruly they have only to draw the cord on one side, which, by stopping his breath, punishes him so effectually that after a few repetitions he fails not to become quite tractable whenever he begins to feel it” (Michaelis). So God’s agents are never beyond his control.ETI Hook.2

    (2.) Hakkah, a fish “hook” (Job 41:2, Heb. Text, Job 40:25; Isaiah 19:8; Habakkuk 1:15).ETI Hook.3

    (3.) Vav, a “peg” on which the curtains of the tabernacle were hung (Exodus 26:32).ETI Hook.4

    (4.) Tsinnah, a fish-hooks (Amos 4:2).ETI Hook.5

    (5.) Mazleg, flesh-hooks (1 Samuel 2:13, 1 Samuel 2:14), a kind of fork with three teeth for turning the sacrifices on the fire, etc.ETI Hook.6

    (6.) Mazmeroth, pruning-hooks (Isaiah 2:4; Joel 3:10).ETI Hook.7

    (7.) ‘Agmon (Job 41:2, Heb. Text Job 40:26), incorrectly rendered in the Authorized Version. Properly a rush-rope for binding animals, as in Revised Version margin.ETI Hook.8


    Hope — one of the three main elements of Christian character (1 Corinthians 13:13). It is joined to faith and love, and is opposed to seeing or possessing (Romans 8:24; 1 John 3:2). “Hope is an essential and fundamental element of Christian life, so essential indeed, that, like faith and love, it can itself designate the essence of Christianity (1 Peter 3:15; Hebrews 10:23). In it the whole glory of the Christian vocation is centred (Ephesians 1:18; Ephesians 4:4).” Unbelievers are without this hope (Ephesians 2:12; 1 Thessalonians 4:13). Christ is the actual object of the believer’s hope, because it is in his second coming that the hope of glory will be fulfilled (1 Timothy 1:1; Colossians 1:27; Titus 2:13). It is spoken of as “lively”, i.e., a living, hope, a hope not frail and perishable, but having a perennial life (1 Peter 1:3). In Romans 5:2 the “hope” spoken of is probably objective, i.e., “the hope set before us,” namely, eternal life (comp. Romans 12:12). In 1 John 3:3 the expression “hope in him” ought rather to be, as in the Revised Version, “hope on him,” i.e., a hope based on God.ETI Hope.2


    Hophni — pugilist or client, one of the two sons of Eli, the high priest (1 Samuel 1:3; 1 Samuel 2:34), who, because he was “very old,” resigned to them the active duties of his office. By their scandalous conduct they brought down a curse on their father’s house (1 Samuel 2:22, 1 Samuel 2:12-27, 1 Samuel 2:27-36; 1 Samuel 3:11-14). For their wickedness they were called “sons of Belial,” i.e., worthless men (1 Samuel 2:12). They both perished in the disastrous battle with the Philistines at Aphek (1 Samuel 4:11). (See PHINEHAS.)ETI Hophni.2


    Hophra — i.e., PHARAOH-HOPHRA (called Apries by the Greek historian Herodotus) king of Egypt (B.C. 591-572) in the time of Zedekiah, king of Judah (Jeremiah 37:5 Jeremiah 44:30; Ezekiel 29:6, Ezekiel 29:7).ETI Hophra.2


    Hor — mountain. (1.) One of the mountains of the chain of Seir or Edom, on the confines of Idumea (Numbers 20:22-29; Numbers 33:37). It was one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Numbers 33:37), which they reached in the circuitous route they were obliged to take because the Edomites refused them a passage through their territory. It was during the encampment here that Aaron died (Numbers 33:37-41). (See AARON.) The Israelites passed this mountain several times in their wanderings. It bears the modern name of Jebel Harun, and is the highest and most conspicious of the whole range. It stands about midway between the Dead Sea and the Elanitic gulf. It has two summits, in the hallow between which it is supposed that Aaron died. Others, however, suppose that this mountain is the modern Jebel Madurah, on the opposite, i.e., the western, side of the Arabah.ETI Hor.2

    (2.) One of the marks of the northern boundary of Palestine (Numbers 34:7, Numbers 34:8). Nowhere else mentioned. Perhaps it is one of the peaks of Lebanon.ETI Hor.3


    Horeb — desert or mountain of the dried-up ground, a general name for the whole mountain range of which Sinai was one of the summits (Exodus 3:1; Exodus 17:6; Exodus 33:6; Psalm 106:19, etc.). The modern name of the whole range is Jebel Musa. It is a huge mountain block, about 2 miles long by about 1 in breadth, with a very spacious plain at its north-east end, called the Er Rahah, in which the Israelites encamped for nearly a whole year. (See SINAI.)ETI Horeb.2


    Horem — consecrated, one of the fenced cities of Naphtali (Joshua 19:38).ETI Horem.2


    Horites — cave-men, a race of Troglodytes who dwelt in the limestone caves which abounded in Edom. Their ancestor was “Seir,” who probably gave his name to the district where he lived. They were a branch of the Hivites (Genesis 14:6; Genesis 36:20-30; 1 Chronicles 1:38, 1 Chronicles 1:39). They were dispossessed by the descendants of Esau, and as a people gradually became extinct (Deuteronomy 2:12-22).ETI Horites.2


    Hormah — banning; i.e., placing under a “ban,” or devoting to utter destruction. After the manifestation of God’s anger against the Israelites, on account of their rebellion and their murmurings when the spies returned to the camp at Kadesh, in the wilderness of Paran, with an evil report of the land, they quickly repented of their conduct, and presumed to go up “to the head of the mountain,” seeking to enter the Promised Land, but without the presence of the Lord, without the ark of the convenant, and without Moses. The Amalekites and the Canaanites came down and “smote and discomfited them even unto Hormah” (Numbers 14:45). This place, or perhaps the watch-tower commanding it, was originally called Zephath (Judges 1:17), the modern Sebaiteh. Afterwards (Numbers 21:1-3) Arad, the king of the Canaanites, at the close of the wanderings, when the Israelites were a second time encamped at Kadesh, “fought against them, and took some of them prisoners.” But Israel vowed a vow unto the Lord utterly to destroy the cities of the Canaanites; they “banned” them, and hence the place was now called Hormah. But this “ban” was not fully executed till the time of Joshua, who finally conquered the king of this district, so that the ancient name Zephath became “Hormah” (Joshua 12:14; Judges 1:17).ETI Hormah.2


    Horn — Trumpets were at first horns perforated at the tip, used for various purposes (Joshua 6:4,Joshua 6:5).ETI Horn.2

    Flasks or vessels were made of horn (1 Samuel 16:1, 1 Samuel 16:13; 1 Kings 1:39).ETI Horn.3

    But the word is used also metaphorically to denote the projecting corners of the altar of burnt offerings (Exodus 27:2) and of incense (Exodus 30:2). The horns of the altar of burnt offerings were to be smeared with the blood of the slain bullock (Exodus 29:12; Leviticus 4:7-18). The criminal, when his crime was accidental, found an asylum by laying hold of the horns of the altar (1 Kings 1:50; 1 Kings 2:28).ETI Horn.4

    The word also denotes the peak or summit of a hill (Isaiah 5:1, where the word “hill” is the rendering of the same Hebrew word).ETI Horn.5

    This word is used metaphorically also for strength (Deuteronomy 33:17) and honour (Job 16:15; Lamentations 2:3). Horns are emblems of power, dominion, glory, and fierceness, as they are the chief means of attack and defence with the animals endowed with them (Daniel 8:5, Daniel 8:9; 1 Samuel 2:1; 1 Samuel 16:1, 1 Samuel 16:13; 1 Kings 1:39; 1 Kings 22:11; Joshua 6:4, Joshua 6:5; Psalm 75:5, Psalm 75:10; Psalm 132:17; Luke 1:69, etc.). The expression “horn of salvation,” applied to Christ, means a salvation of strength, or a strong Saviour (Luke 1:69). To have the horn “exalted” denotes prosperity and triumph (Psalm 89:17, Psalm 89:24). To “lift up” the horn is to act proudly (Zechariah 1:21).ETI Horn.6

    Horns are also the symbol of royal dignity and power (Jeremiah 48:25; Zechariah 1:18; Daniel 8:24).ETI Horn.7


    Hornet — Heb. tsir’ah, “stinging”, (Exodus 23:28; Deuteronomy 7:20; Joshua 24:12). The word is used in these passages as referring to some means by which the Canaanites were to be driven out from before the Israelites. Some have supposed that the word is used in a metaphorical sense as the symbol of some panic which would seize the people as a “terror of God” (Genesis 35:5), the consternation with which God would inspire the Canaanites. In Palestine there are four species of hornets, differing from our hornets, being larger in size, and they are very abundant. They “attack human beings in a very furious manner.” “The furious attack of a swarm of hornets drives cattle and horses to madness, and has even caused the death of the animals.”ETI Hornet.2


    Horonaim — two caverns, a city of Moab to the south of the Arnon, built, apparently, upon an eminence, and a place of some importance (Isaiah 15:5; Jeremiah 48:3, Jeremiah 48:5, Jeremiah 48:34).ETI Horonaim.2


    Horonite — the designation of Sanballat (Nehemiah 2:10, Nehemiah 2:19), a native of Horonaim, or of one of the two Beth-horons, the “upper” or the “nether,” mentioned in Joshua 16:3,Joshua 16:5.ETI Horonite.2


    Horse — always referred to in the Bible in connection with warlike operations, except Isaiah 28:28. The war-horse is described Job 39:19-25. For a long period after their settlement in Canaan the Israelites made no use of horses, according to the prohibition, Deuteronomy 17:16. David was the first to form a force of cavalry (2 Samuel 8:4). But Solomon, from his connection with Egypt, greatly multiplied their number (1 Kings 4:26; 1 Kings 10:26, 1 Kings 10:29). After this, horses were freely used in Israel (1 Kings 22:4; 2 Kings 3:7; 2 Kings 9:21, 2 Kings 9:33; 2 Kings 11:16). The furniture of the horse consisted simply of a bridle (Isaiah 30:28) and a curb (Psalm 32:9).ETI Horse.2


    Horse-gate — a gate in the wall of Jerusalem, at the west end of the bridge, leading from Zion to the temple (Nehemiah 3:28; Jeremiah 31:40).ETI Horse-gate.2


    Horse-leech — occurs only in Proverbs 30:15 (Heb. ˒alukah; the generic name for any blood-sucking annelid. There are various species in the marshes and pools of Palestine. That here referred to, the Hoemopis, is remarkable for the coarseness of its bite, and is therefore not used for medical purposes. They are spoken of in the East with feelings of aversion and horror, because of their propensity to fasten on the tongue and nostrils of horses when they come to drink out of the pools. The medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis), besides other species of leeches, are common in the waters of Syria.ETI Horse-leech.2


    Horseman — Heb. ba’al parash, “master of a horse.” The “horsemen” mentioned Exodus 14:9 were “mounted men”, i.e., men who rode in chariots. The army of Pharaoh consisted of a chariot and infantry force. We find that at a later period, however, the Egyptians had cavalry (2 Chronicles 12:3). (See HORSE.)ETI Horseman.2


    Hosah — refuge. (1.) A place on the border of the tribe of Asher (Joshua 19:29), a little to the south of Zidon.ETI Hosah.2

    (2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chronicles 16:38).ETI Hosah.3


    Hosanna — Save now! or Save, we beseech, (Matthew 21:9). This was a customary form of acclamation at the feast of Tabernacles. (Comp. Psalm 118:25.)ETI Hosanna.2


    Hose — (Daniel 3:21), a tunic or undergarment.ETI Hose.2


    Hosea — salvation, the son of Beeri, and author of the book of prophecies bearing his name. He belonged to the kingdom of Israel. “His Israelitish origin is attested by the peculiar, rough, Aramaizing diction, pointing to the northern part of Palestine; by the intimate acquaintance he evinces with the localities of Ephraim (Hosea 5:1; Hosea 6:8, Hosea 6:9; Hosea 12:12; Hosea 14:6, etc.); by passages like Hosea 1:2, where the kingdom is styled ‘the land’, and Hosea 7:5, where the Israelitish king is designated as ‘our’ king.” The period of his ministry (extending to some sixty years) is indicated in the superscription (Hosea 1:1, Hosea 1:2). He is the only prophet of Israel who has left any written prophecy.ETI Hosea.2

    Hosea, Prophecies of

    Hosea, Prophecies of — This book stands first in order among the “Minor Prophets.” “The probable cause of the location of Hosea may be the thoroughly national character of his oracles, their length, their earnest tone, and vivid representations.” This was the longest of the prophetic books written before the Captivity. Hosea prophesied in a dark and melancholy period of Israel’s history, the period of Israel’s decline and fall. Their sins had brought upon them great national disasters. “Their homicides and fornication, their perjury and theft, their idolatry and impiety, are censured and satirized with a faithful severity.” He was a contemporary of Isaiah. The book may be divided into two parts, the first containing chapters Hosea 1-3, and symbolically representing the idolatry of Israel under imagery borrowed from the matrimonial relation. The figures of marriage and adultery are common in the Old Testament writings to represent the spiritual relations between Jehovah and the people of Israel. Here we see the apostasy of Israel and their punishment, with their future repentance, forgiveness, and restoration.ETI Hosea, Prophecies of.2

    The second part, containing Hosea 4-14, is a summary of Hosea’s discourses, filled with denunciations, threatenings, exhortations, promises, and revelations of mercy.ETI Hosea, Prophecies of.3

    Quotations from Hosea are found in Matthew 2:15; Matthew 9:15; Matthew 12:7; Romans 9:25, Romans 9:26. There are, in addition, various allusions to it in other places (Luke 23:30; Revelation 6:16, comp. Hosea 10:8; Romans 9:25, Romans 9:26; 1 Peter 2:10, comp. Hosea 1:10, etc.).ETI Hosea, Prophecies of.4

    As regards the style of this writer, it has been said that “each verse forms a whole for itself, like one heavy toll in a funeral knell.” “Inversions (Hosea 7:8; Hosea 9:11, Hosea 9:13; Hosea 12:8), anacolutha (Hosea 9:6; Hosea 12:8, etc.), ellipses (Hosea 9:4; Hosea 13:9, etc.), paranomasias, and plays upon words, are very characteristic of Hosea (Hosea 8:7; Hosea 9:15; Hosea 10:5; Hosea 11:5; Hosea 12:11).”ETI Hosea, Prophecies of.5


    Hoshea — salvation. (1.) The original name of the son of Nun, afterwards called Joshua (Numbers 13:8, Numbers 13:16; Deuteronomy 32:44).ETI Hoshea.2

    (2.) 1 Chronicles 27:20. The ruler of Ephraim in David’s time.ETI Hoshea.3

    (3.) The last king of Israel. He conspired against and slew his predecessor, Pekah (Isaiah 7:16), but did not ascend the throne till after an interregnum of warfare of eight years (2 Kings 17:1, 2 Kings 17:2). Soon after this he submitted to Shalmaneser, the Assyrian king, who a second time invaded the land to punish Hoshea, because of his withholding tribute which he had promised to pay. A second revolt brought back the Assyrian king Sargon, who besieged Samaria, and carried the ten tribes away beyond the Euphrates, 720 (2 Kings 17:5, 2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 18:9-12). No more is heard of Hoshea. He disappeared like “foam upon the water” (Hosea 10:7; Hosea 13:11).ETI Hoshea.4


    Host — an entertainer (Romans 16:23); a tavern-keeper, the keeper of a caravansary (Luke 10:35).ETI Host.2

    In warfare, a troop or military force. This consisted at first only of infantry. Solomon afterwards added cavalry (1 Kings 4:26; 1 Kings 10:26). Every male Israelite from twenty to fifty years of age was bound by the law to bear arms when necessary (Numbers 1:3; Numbers 26:2; 2 Chronicles 25:5).ETI Host.3

    Saul was the first to form a standing army (1 Samuel 13:2; 1 Samuel 24:2). This example was followed by David (1 Chronicles 27:1), and Solomon (1 Kings 4:26), and by the kings of Israel and Judah (2 Chronicles 17:14; 2 Chronicles 26:11; 2 Kings 11:4, etc.).ETI Host.4


    Hostage — a person delivered into the hands of another as a security for the performance of some promise, etc. (2 Kings 14:14; 2 Chronicles 25:24).ETI Hostage.2

    Host of heaven

    Host of heaven — The sun, moon, and stars are so designated (Genesis 2:1). When the Jews fell into idolatry they worshipped these (Deuteronomy 4:19; 2 Kings 17:16; 2 Kings 21:3,2 Kings 21:5; 2 Kings 23:5; Jeremiah 19:13; Zephaniah 1:5; Acts 7:42).ETI Host of heaven.2


    Hough — to hamstring, i.e., sever the “tendon of Achilles” of the hinder legs of captured horses (Joshua 11:6; 2 Samuel 8:4; 1 Chronicles 18:4), so as to render them useless.ETI Hough.2


    Hour — First found in Daniel 3:6; Daniel 4:19, Daniel 4:33;Daniel 5:5. It is the rendering of the Chaldee shaah, meaning a “moment,” a “look.” It is used in the New Testament frequently to denote some determinate season (Matthew 8:13; Luke 12:39).ETI Hour.2

    With the ancient Hebrews the divisions of the day were “morning, evening, and noon-day” (Psalm 55:17, etc.). The Greeks, following the Babylonians, divided the day into twelve hours. The Jews, during the Captivity, learned also from the Babylonians this method of dividing time. When Judea became subject to the Romans, the Jews adopted the Roman mode of reckoning time. The night was divided into four watches (Luke 12:38; Matthew 14:25; Matthew 13:25). Frequent allusion is also made to hours (Matthew 25:13; Matthew 26:40, etc.). (See DAY.)ETI Hour.3

    An hour was the twelfth part of the day, reckoning from sunrise to sunset, and consequently it perpetually varied in length.ETI Hour.4


    House — Till their sojourn in Egypt the Hebrews dwelt in tents. They then for the first time inhabited cities (Genesis 47:3; Exodus 12:7; Hebrews 11:9). From the earliest times the Assyrians and the Canaanites were builders of cities. The Hebrews after the Conquest took possession of the captured cities, and seem to have followed the methods of building that had been pursued by the Canaanites. Reference is made to the stone (1 Kings 7:9; Isaiah 9:10) and marble (1 Chronicles 29:2) used in building, and to the internal wood-work of the houses (1 Kings 6:15; 1 Kings 7:2; 1 Kings 10:11, 1 Kings 10:12; 2 Chronicles 3:5; Jeremiah 22:14). “Ceiled houses” were such as had beams inlaid in the walls to which wainscotting was fastened (Ezra 6:4; Jeremiah 22:14; Haggai 1:4). “Ivory houses” had the upper parts of the walls adorned with figures in stucco with gold and ivory (1 Kings 22:39; 2 Chronicles 3:6; Psalm 45:8).ETI House.2

    The roofs of the dwelling-houses were flat, and are often alluded to in Scripture (2 Samuel 11:2; Isaiah 22:1; Matthew 24:17). Sometimes tents or booths were erected on them (2 Samuel 16:22). They were protected by parapets or low walls (Deuteronomy 22:8). On the house-tops grass sometimes grew (Proverbs 19:13; Proverbs 27:15; Psalm 129:6, Psalm 129:7). They were used, not only as places of recreation in the evening, but also sometimes as sleeping-places at night (1 Samuel 9:25, 1 Samuel 9:26; 2 Samuel 11:2; 2 Samuel 16:22; Daniel 4:29; Job 27:18; Proverbs 21:9), and as places of devotion (Jeremiah 32:29; Jeremiah 19:13).ETI House.3


    Hukkok — decreed, a town near Zebulun, not far from Jordan, on the border of Naphtali (Joshua 19:34). (See HELKATH.)ETI Hukkok.2


    Hul — circle, the second son of Aram (Genesis 10:23), and grandson of Shem.ETI Hul.2


    Huldah — weasel, a prophetess; the wife of Shallum. She was consulted regarding the “book of the law” discovered by the high priest Hilkiah (2 Kings 22:14-20; 2 Chronicles 34:22-28). She resided in that part of Jerusalem called the Mishneh (A.V., “the college;” R.V., “the second quarter”), supposed by some to be the suburb between the inner and the outer wall, the second or lower city, Akra. Miriam (Exodus 15:20) and Deborah (Judges 4:4) are the only others who bear the title of “prophetess,” for the word in Isaiah 8:3 means only the prophet’s wife.ETI Huldah.2

    Humiliation of Christ

    Humiliation of Christ — (Philippians 2:8), seen in (1) his birth (Galatians 4:4; Luke 2:7; John 1:46; Hebrews 2:9), (2) his circumstances, (3) his reputation (Isaiah 53; Matthew 26:59, Matthew 26:67; Psalm 22:6; Matthew 26:68), (4) his soul (Psalm 22:1; Matthew 4:1-11; Luke 22:44; Hebrews 2:17, Hebrews 2:18; Hebrews 4:15), (5) his death (Luke 23; John 19; Mark 15:24, Mark 15:25), (6) and his burial (Isaiah 53:9; Matthew 27:57, Matthew 27:58, Matthew 27:60).ETI Humiliation of Christ.2

    His humiliation was necessary (1) to execute the purpose of God (Acts 2:23, Acts 2:24; Psalm 40:6-8), (2) fulfil the Old Testament types and prophecies, (3) satisfy the law in the room of the guilty (Isaiah 53; Hebrews 9:12, Hebrews 9:15), procure for them eternal redemption, (4) and to show us an example.ETI Humiliation of Christ.3


    Humility — a prominent Christian grace (Romans 12:3; Romans 15:17, Romans 15:18; 1 Corinthians 3:5-7; 2 Corinthians 3:5; Philippians 4:11-13). It is a state of mind well pleasing to God (1 Peter 3:4); it preserves the soul in tranquillity (Psalm 69:32, Psalm 69:33), and makes us patient under trials (Job 1:22).ETI Humility.2

    Christ has set us an example of humility (Philippians 2:6-8). We should be led thereto by a remembrance of our sins (Lamentations 3:39), and by the thought that it is the way to honour (Proverbs 16:18), and that the greatest promises are made to the humble (Psalm 147:6; Isaiah 57:15; Isaiah 66:2; 1 Peter 5:5). It is a “great paradox in Christianity that it makes humility the avenue to glory.”ETI Humility.3


    Hunting — mentioned first in Genesis 10:9 in connection with Nimrod. Esau was “a cunning hunter” (Genesis 25:27). Hunting was practised by the Hebrews after their settlement in the “Land of Promise” (Leviticus 17:15; Proverbs 12:27). The lion and other ravenous beasts were found in Palestine (1 Samuel 17:34; 2 Samuel 23:20; 1 Kings 13:24; Ezekiel 19:3-8), and it must have been necessary to hunt and destroy them. Various snares and gins were used in hunting (Psalm 91:3; Amos 3:5; 2 Samuel 23:20).ETI Hunting.2

    War is referred to under the idea of hunting (Jeremiah 16:16; Ezekiel 32:30).ETI Hunting.3


    Hur — a hole, as of a viper, etc. (1.) A son of Caleb (1 Chronicles 2:19, 1 Chronicles 2:50; 1 Chronicles 4:1, 1 Chronicles 4:4; comp. 2 Chronicles 1:5).ETI Hur.2

    (2.) The husband of Miriam, Moses’ sister (Exodus 17:10-12). He was associated with Aaron in charge of the people when Moses was absent on Sinai (Exodus 24:14). He was probably of the tribe of Judah, and grandfather of Bezaleel (Exodus 31:2; Exodus 35:30; 1 Chronicles 2:19).ETI Hur.3

    (3.) One of the five princes of Midian who were defeated and slain by the Israelites under the command of Phinehas (Numbers 31:8).ETI Hur.4


    Hurai — linen-worker, one of David’s heroes, a native of the valley of Mount Gaash (1 Chronicles 11:32).ETI Hurai.2


    Husband — i.e., the “house-band,” connecting and keeping together the whole family. A man when betrothed was esteemed from that time a husband (Matthew 1:16, Matthew 1:20; Luke 2:5). A recently married man was exempt from going to war for “one year” (Deuteronomy 20:7; Deuteronomy 24:5).ETI Husband.2


    Husbandman — one whose business it is to cultivate the ground. It was one of the first occupations, and was esteemed most honourable (Genesis 9:20; Genesis 26:12, Genesis 26:14; Genesis 37:7, etc.). All the Hebrews, except those engaged in religious services, were husbandmen. (See AGRICULTURE.)ETI Husbandman.2


    Hushai — quick, “the Archite,” “the king’s friend” (1 Chronicles 27:33). When David fled from Jerusalem, on account of the rebellion of Absalom, and had reached the summit of Olivet, he there met Hushai, whom he sent back to Jerusalem for the purpose of counteracting the influence of Ahithophel, who had joined the ranks of Absalom (2 Samuel 15:32, 2 Samuel 15:37; 2 Samuel 16:16-18). It was by his advice that Absalom refrained from immediately pursuing after David. By this delay the cause of Absalom was ruined, for it gave David time to muster his forces.ETI Hushai.2


    Husk — In Numbers 6:4 (Heb. zag it means the “skin” of a grape. In 2 Kings 4:42 (Heb. tsiqlon it means a “sack” for grain, as rendered in the Revised Version. In Luke 15:16, in the parable of the Prodigal Son, it designates the beans of the carob tree, or Ceratonia siliqua. From the supposition, mistaken, however, that it was on the husks of this tree that John the Baptist fed, it is called “St. John’s bread” and “locust tree.” This tree is in “February covered with innumerable purple-red pendent blossoms, which ripen in April and May into large crops of pods from 6 to 10 inches long, flat, brown, narrow, and bent like a horn (whence the Greek name keratia, meaning ‘little horns’), with a sweetish taste when still unripe. Enormous quantities of these are gathered for sale in various towns and for exportation.” “They were eaten as food, though only by the poorest of the poor, in the time of our Lord.” The bean is called a “gerah,” which is used as the name of the smallest Hebrew weight, twenty of these making a shekel.ETI Husk.2


    Hymn — occurs only Ephesians 5:19 and Colossians 3:16. The verb to “sing an hymn” occurs Matthew 26:30 and Mark 14:26. The same Greek word is rendered to “sing praises” Acts 16:25 (R.V., “sing hymns”) and Hebrews 2:12. The “hymn” which our Lord sang with his disciples at the last Supper is generally supposed to have been the latter part of the Hallel, comprehending Psalm 113-118. It was thus a name given to a number of psalms taken together and forming a devotional exercise.ETI Hymn.2

    The noun hymn is used only with reference to the services of the Greeks, and was distinguished from the psalm. The Greek tunes required Greek hymns. Our information regarding the hymnology of the early Christians is very limited.ETI Hymn.3


    Hypocrite — one who puts on a mask and feigns himself to be what he is not; a dissembler in religion. Our Lord severely rebuked the scribes and Pharisees for their hypocrisy (Matthew 6:2, Matthew 6:5, Matthew 6:16). “The hypocrite’s hope shall perish” (Job 8:13). The Hebrew word here rendered “hypocrite” rather means the “godless” or “profane,” as it is rendered in Jeremiah 23:11, i.e., polluted with crimes.ETI Hypocrite.2


    Hyssop — (Heb. ˒ezob; LXX. hyssopos), first mentioned in Exodus 12:22 in connection with the institution of the Passover. We find it afterwards mentioned in Leviticus 14:4, Leviticus 14:6, Leviticus 14:52; Numbers 19:6, Numbers 19:18; Hebrews 9:19. It is spoken of as a plant “springing out of the wall” (1 Kings 4:33). Many conjectures have been formed as to what this plant really was. Some contend that it was a species of marjoram (origanum), six species of which are found in Palestine. Others with more probability think that it was the caper plant, the Capparis spinosa of Linnaeus. This plant grew in Egypt, in the desert of Sinai, and in Palestine. It was capable of producing a stem three or four feet in length (Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:36. Comp. John 19:29).ETI Hyssop.2

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