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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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    ANGEL-WORSHIP, n. The worshipping of angels.

    ANGER, n. ang’ger. [L. ango, to choke strangle, vex; whence angor, vexation, anguish, the quinsy, angina. Gr. to strangle, to strain or draw together to vex. The primary sense is to press, squeeze, make narrow; Heb. to strangle.]

    1. A violent passion of the mind excited by a real or supposed injury; usually accompanied with a propensity to take vengeance, or to obtain satisfaction from the offending party. This passion however varies in degrees of violence, and in ingenuous minds, may be attended only with a desire to reprove or chide the offender.NWAD ANGER.2

    Anger is also excited by an injury offered to a relation, friend or party to which one is attached; and some degrees of it may be excited by cruelty, injustice or oppression offered to those with whom one has no immediate connection, or even to the community of which one is a member. Nor is it unusual to see something of this passion roused by gross absurdities in others, especially in controversy or discussion. Anger may be inflamed till it rises to rage and a temporary delirium.NWAD ANGER.3

    2. Paint; smart of a sore or swelling; the literal sense of the word, but little used.NWAD ANGER.4

    ANGER, v.t. ang’ger.

    1. To excite anger; to provoke; to rouse resentment.NWAD ANGER.6

    2. To make painful; to cause to smart; to inflame; as, to anger an ulcer.NWAD ANGER.7

    ANGERLY, adv. [anger and like.] In an angry manner; more generally written angrily.

    ANGINA, n. [L. from ango, to choke. See Anger.]

    A quinsey; an inflammation of the throat; a tumor impeding respiration. It is a general name of the diseases called sorethroat, as quinsy, scarlet fever, croup, mumps, etc.NWAD ANGINA.2

    Angina pectoris, an anomalous or spasmodic affection of the chest and organs of respiration; or a disease of the heart.NWAD ANGINA.3

    ANGIOGRAPHY, n. [Gr. a vessel, and description.] A description of the vessels in the human body.

    ANGIOLOGY, n. [Gr. a vessel, and discourse.]

    A treatise or discourse on the vessels of the human body, as the arteries, veins, lymphatics, etc.NWAD ANGIOLOGY.2

    ANGIOMONOSPERMOUS, n. [Gr. a vessel, alone, and seed.]

    Producing one seed only in a pod.NWAD ANGIOMONOSPERMOUS.2

    ANGIOSPERM, n. [Gr. a vessel, and seed.] In botany, a plant which has its seeds inclosed in a pericarp.

    ANGIOSPERMOUS, a. Having seeds inclosed in a pod or other pericarp. In Linne’s system, the second order of plants in the didynamian class are called angiospermia. This word is opposed to gymnospermous or naked-seeded.

    ANGIOTOMY, n. [Gr. a vessel, and to cut.]

    The opening of a vessel, whether a vein or an artery, as in bleeding. It includes both arteriotomy and phlebotomy.NWAD ANGIOTOMY.2

    ANGLE, n. [L. angulus, a corner. Gr.]

    In popular language, the point where two lines meet, or the meeting of two lines in a point; a corner.NWAD ANGLE.2

    In geometry, the space comprised between two straight lines that meet in a point, or between two straight converging lines which, if extended, would meet; or the quantity by which two straight lines, departing from a point, diverge from each other. The point of meeting is the vertex of the angle, and the lines, containing the angle, are its sides or legs.NWAD ANGLE.3

    In optics, the angle of incidence is the angle which a ray of light makes with a perpendicular to the surface, or to that point of the surface on which it falls.NWAD ANGLE.4

    The angle of refraction is the angle which a ray of light refracted makes with the surface of the refracting medium; or rather with a perpendicular to that point of the surface on which it falls.NWAD ANGLE.5

    A right angle, is one formed by a right line falling on another perpendicularly, or an angle of 90 degrees, making the quarter of a circle.NWAD ANGLE.6

    An obtuse angle is greater than a right angle, or more than 90 degrees.NWAD ANGLE.7

    A rectilineal or right-lined angle, is formed by two right lines.NWAD ANGLE.8

    A curvilineal angle, is formed by two curved lines.NWAD ANGLE.9

    A mixed angle is formed by a right line with a curved line.NWAD ANGLE.10

    Adjacent or contiguous angles are such as have one leg common to both angles, and both together are equal to two right angles.NWAD ANGLE.11

    External angles are angles of any right-lined figure without it, when the sides are produced or lengthened.NWAD ANGLE.12

    Internal angles are those which are within any right-lined figure.NWAD ANGLE.13

    Oblique angles are either acute or obtuse, in opposition to right angles.NWAD ANGLE.14

    A solid angle is the meeting of three or more plain angles at one point.NWAD ANGLE.15

    A spherical angle is one made by the meeting of two arches of great circles, which mutually cut one another on the surface of the globe or sphere.NWAD ANGLE.16

    ANGLE, n. A hook; an instrument to take fish, consisting of a rod, a line and a hook, or a line and hook.
    ANGLE, v.i.

    1. To fish with an angle, or with line and hook.NWAD ANGLE.19

    2. v.t. or i. To fish for; to try to gain by some bait or insinuation, as men angle for fish; as, to angle for the hearts of people, or to angle hearts.NWAD ANGLE.20

    ANGLED, a. Having angles - used only in compounds.

    ANGLER, n. One that fishes with an angle; also a fish, a species of lophius.

    ANGLE-ROD, n. The rod or pole to which a line and hook are fastened.

    ANGLIC, ANGLICAN, a. [L. icus, in publicus, and all similar adjectives. From ing, was formed Angles, the English, to which is added this common affix, ic. Ing is annexed to many English names, as Reading, Basing, Kittering, towns situated on flat land.]

    English; pertaining to England or the English nation; as the Anglican church.NWAD ANGLIC.2

    ANGLICISM, n. An English Idiom; a form of language peculiar to the English.

    ANGLICIZE, v.t. To make English; to render conformable to the English idiom, or to English analogies.

    ANGLING, ppr. Fishing with an angle.

    ANGLING, n. A fishing with a rod and line.

    ANGLO-DANISH, a. Pertaining to the English Danes, or the Danes who settled in England.

    ANGLO-NORMAN, a. Pertaining to the English Normans.

    ANGLO-SAXON, a. Pertaining to the Saxons, who settled in England, or English Saxons.

    ANGLO-SAXON, n. A kind of pear; also the language of the English Saxons.

    ANGOLA-PEA, PIGEON-PEA. A species of Cytisus.

    ANGOR, n. [L. See Anger.]

    1. Pain; intense bodily pain.NWAD ANGOR.2

    2. The retiring of the native bodily heat to the center, occasioning head-ache, palpitation and sadness.NWAD ANGOR.3

    ANGRED, ANGERED, pp. Made angry; provoked.

    ANGRILY, adv. In an angry manner; peevishly; with indications of resentment.

    ANGRY, a. [See Anger.]

    1. Feeling resentment; provoked; followed generally by with before a person.NWAD ANGRY.2

    God is angry with the wicked every day. Psalm 7:11.NWAD ANGRY.3

    But it is usually followed by at before a thing.NWAD ANGRY.4

    Wherefore should God be angry at thy voice? Ecclesiastes 5:6.NWAD ANGRY.5

    2. Showing anger; wearing the marks of anger; caused by anger; as, an angry countenance; angry words.NWAD ANGRY.6

    3. Inflamed, as a sore; red; manifesting inflammation.NWAD ANGRY.7

    4. Raging; furious; tumultuous.NWAD ANGRY.8

    Or chain the angry vengeance of the waves.NWAD ANGRY.9

    ANGSANA, ANGSAVA, n. A red gum of the East Indies, like that of dragon’s blood.

    ANGU, n. Bread made of the Cassada, a plant of the W. Indies.

    ANGUIFER, n. [L. anguis, a serpent, and fero, to bear.]

    In astronomy, a cluster of stars in the form of a man holding a serpent; Serpentarius, one of the twelve signs of the zodiac.NWAD ANGUIFER.2

    ANGUILLA, n. [L. an eel.]

    In zoology, an eel; also the name of a Mediterranean fish used for food, called also hospetus and atherina.NWAD ANGUILLA.2

    ANGUILLIFORM, a. [L. anguilla, an eel, and forma, shape.] In the form of an eel, or of a serpent; resembling an eel or serpent.

    ANGUISH, n. [L. angustia, narrowness, from pressure. See Anger.]

    Extreme pain, either of body or mind. As bodily pain, it may differ from agony, which is such distress of the whole body as to cause contortion, whereas anguish may be a local pain as of an ulcer, or gout. But anguish and agony are nearly synonymous. As pain of the mind, it signifies any keen distress from sorrow, remorse, despair and kindred passions.NWAD ANGUISH.2

    And they hearkened not to Moses, for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage. Exodus 6:9.NWAD ANGUISH.3

    ANGUISH, v.t. To distress with extreme pain or grief.

    ANGUISHED, pp. Extremely pained; tortured; deeply distressed.

    ANGULAR, a.

    1. Having an angle, angles or corners; pointed; as an angular figure.NWAD ANGULAR.2

    2. Consisting of an angle; forming an angle; as an angular point.NWAD ANGULAR.3

    ANGULARITY, n. The quality of having an angle or corner.

    ANGULARLY, adv. With angles, or corners; in the direction of the angles.

    ANGULARNESS, n. The quality of being angular.

    ANGULATED, a. Formed with angles or corners.

    ANGULOUS, a. Angular; having corners; hooked.

    ANGUST, a. [L. angustus.] Narrow; straight. [Not used.]

    ANGUSTATION, n. [L. angustus, narrow. See Anger.]

    The act of making narrow; a straightening, or being made narrow.NWAD ANGUSTATION.2

    ANGUSTICLAVE, n. [L. angustus, narrow, and clavus, a knob or stud.]

    A robe or tunic embroidered with purple studs or knobs, or by purple stripes, worn by Roman knights. The laticlave, with broader studs, was worn by senators.NWAD ANGUSTICLAVE.2

    ANHELATION, n. [L. anhelo, to pant or breathe with difficulty; from halo, to breathe.]

    Shortness of breath; a panting; difficult respiration, without fever, or with a sense of suffocation.NWAD ANHELATION.2

    ANHELOSE, a. Out of breath; panting; breathing with difficulty. [Little used.]

    ANHIMA, n. A Brazilian aquatic fowl, larger than a swan, somewhat like a crane. Its head is small, its bill black, the toes armed with long claws. But what is remarkable, is a horn growing from its forehead; and the second joint of the wing is armed with two straight triangular spurs, an inch in length. The fidelity between the male and female is so great, that when one dies, the other remains by the carcass, till it expires.

    ANHYDRITE, n. [See Anhydrous.]

    A species of sulphate of lime, anhydrous gypsum, of which there are several varieties; compact, granular, fibrous, radiated, sparry, siliciferous or vulpinite, and convoluted.NWAD ANHYDRITE.2

    ANHYDROUS, a. [Gr. dry, and water.]

    Destitute of water. Anhydrite is so called, because it is destitute of the water of crystallization.NWAD ANHYDROUS.2

    ANIENTED, a. Frustrated; brought to naught. Obs.

    ANIGHT, adv. [a or at, and night.]

    In the night time; anights, in the plural, is used of frequent and customary acts.NWAD ANIGHT.2

    You must come in earlier anights.NWAD ANIGHT.3

    ANIL, n. A shrub from whose leaves and stalks indigo is made; Indigofera, or the indigo plant.

    ANILITY, n. [L. anilis, anilitas, from anus, an old woman; Celtic, hen old.]

    The state of being an old woman; the old age of a woman; dotage.NWAD ANILITY.2

    ANIMADVERSION, n. [L. animadversio.]

    Remarks by way of censure or criticism; reproof; blame. It may sometimes be used for punishment, or punishment may be implied in the word, but this is not common. In an ecclesiastical sense, it differs from censure, says Ayliffe; censure, respecting spiritual punishment, and animadversion, a temporal one. Glanville uses the word in the sense of perception, but this use is not authorized.NWAD ANIMADVERSION.2

    ANIMADVERSIVE, a. That has the power of perceiving. Obs.

    ANIMADVERT, v.i. [L. animadverto, of animus, mind, and adverto, to turn to.]

    1. To turn the mind to; to consider.NWAD ANIMADVERT.2

    2. To consider or remark upon by way of criticism or censure.NWAD ANIMADVERT.3

    3. To inflict punishment; followed by upon.NWAD ANIMADVERT.4

    ANIMADVERTER, n. One who animadverts or makes remarks by way of censure.

    ANIMADVERTING, ppr. Considering; remarking by way of criticism or censure.

    ANIMAL, n. [L. animal, from anima, air, breath, soul.]

    An organized body, endowed with life and the power of voluntary motion; a living, sensitive, locomotive body; as, man is an intelligent animal. Animals are essentially distinguished from plants by the property of sensation. The contractile property of some plants, as the mimosa, has the appearance of the effect of sensation, but it may be merely the effect of irritability.NWAD ANIMAL.2

    The distinction here made between animals and vegetables, may not be philosophically accurate; for we cannot perhaps ascertain the precise limit between the two kinds of beings, but this is sufficiently correct for common practical purposes.NWAD ANIMAL.3

    The history of animals is called zoology.NWAD ANIMAL.4

    By way of contempt, a dull person is called a stupid animal.NWAD ANIMAL.5

    ANIMAL, a. That belongs or relates to animals; as animal functions.

    Animal is distinguished from intellectual; as animal appetites, the appetites of the body, as hunger and thirst.NWAD ANIMAL.7

    The animal functions, are touch, taste, motion, etc.NWAD ANIMAL.8

    Animal life is opposed to vegetable life.NWAD ANIMAL.9

    Animal is opposed also to spiritual or rational, which respects the soul and reasoning faculties; as animal nature, spiritual nature, rational nature.NWAD ANIMAL.10

    Animal food may signify that food which nourishes animals; but it usually denotes food consisting of animal flesh.NWAD ANIMAL.11

    Animal economy is the system of laws by which the bodies of animals are governed and depending on their organic structure.NWAD ANIMAL.12

    Animal spirit is a name given to the nervous fluid.NWAD ANIMAL.13

    Animal spirits in the plural, life, vigor, energy.NWAD ANIMAL.14

    Animal system, or animal kingdom denotes the whole class of beings endowed with animal life.NWAD ANIMAL.15

    ANIMALCULE, n. [L. animalculum, animalcula.]

    A little animal; but appropriately, an animal whose figure cannot be discerned without the aid of a magnifying glass; such as are invisible to the naked eye.NWAD ANIMALCULE.2

    ANIMAL-FLOWER, n. In zoology, sea-anemone, sea-nettle or urtica marina, the name of several species of animals belonging to the genus actinia. They are called sea-nettle from their supposed property of stinging, and sea-anemone from the resemblance of their claws or tentacles, to the petals of some flowers. These are disposed in regular circles, and tinged with various bright colors. Some of these animals are hemispherical, others cylindrical; others are shaped like a fig. some are stiff and gelatinous; others, fleshy and muscular; but all can alter their figure by extending their claws in search of food. These animals can move slowly, but are generally fixed by one end to rocks or stones in the sand. On the other extremity, is the mouth in the center, which is surrounded by rows of fleshy claws and capable of great dilatation. They are very voracious, and will swallow a muscle, or crab, as large as a hen’s egg.

    The term Animal Flower, is also extended to many other marine animals, from their resemblance to flowers. They belong to the Holothurias, which with the Actinias, were ranged under the Molluseas, by Linne; and to the Tubularias and Hydras, which were classed with the Zoophytes. They are all arranged under Zoophytes, by Cuvier.NWAD ANIMAL-FLOWER.2

    ANIMALIZATION, n. The act of giving animal life, or endowing with the properties of an animal.

    ANIMALIZE, v.t.

    1. To give animal life to; to endow with the properties of animals.NWAD ANIMALIZE.2

    2. To convert into animal matter.NWAD ANIMALIZE.3

    ANIMALIZED, pp. Endowed with animal life.

    ANIMALIZING, ppr. Giving animal life to.

    ANIMATE, v.t. [L. amino. See Animal.]

    1. To give natural life to; to quicken; to make alive; as the soul animates the body.NWAD ANIMATE.2

    2. To give powers to, or to heighten the powers or effect of a thing; as, to animate a lyre.NWAD ANIMATE.3

    3. To give spirit or vigor; to infuse courage, joy, or other enlivening passion; to stimulate or incite; as, to animate dispirited troops.NWAD ANIMATE.4

    ANIMATE, a. Alive; possessing animal life.

    [This word is used chiefly in poetry for animated.]NWAD ANIMATE.6

    ANIMATED, pp.

    1. Being endowed with anima life, as the various classes of animated beings.NWAD ANIMATED.2

    2. a. Lively; vigorous; full of spirit; indicating animation; as an animated discourse.NWAD ANIMATED.3

    ANIMATING, ppr. Giving life; infusing spirit; enlivening.


    1. The act of infusing life; the state of being animated.NWAD ANIMATION.2

    2. The state of being lively, brisk or full of spirit and vigor; as, he recited the story with great animation.NWAD ANIMATION.3

    ANIMATIVE, a. That has the power of giving life or spirit.

    ANIMATOR, n. One that gives life; that which infuses life or spirit.

    ANIME, n. In heraldry, a term denoting that the eyes of a rapacious animal are borne of a different tincture from the animal himself.

    ANIME, n. A resin exuding from the stem of a large American tree called by the natives courbaril; by Piso, jetaiba. It is of a transparent amber color, a light agreeable smell, and of little or no taste. It dissolves entirely, but not readily, in rectified spirit of wine, and is used by the Brazilians in fumigations, for pains proceeding from cold.

    ANIMETTA, n. Among ecclesiastical writers, the cloth which covers the cup of the eucharist.

    ANIMOSITY, n. [L. animositas; animosus, animated, courageous, enraged; from animus, spirit, mind passion. Gr. wind, breath, is from flowing, swelling, rushing, which gives the sense of violent action and passion. See Animal.]

    Violent hatred accompanied with active opposition; active enmity. Animosity differs from enmity which may be secret and inactive; and it expresses a less criminal passion than malice. animosity seeks to gain a cause or destroy an enemy or rival, from hatred or private interest; malice seeks revenge for the sake of giving pain.NWAD ANIMOSITY.2

    ANINGA, n. A root growing in the West Indies, like the China plant, used in refining sugar.

    ANISE, n. an’nis. [L. anisum; Gr.]

    An annual plant, placed by Linne under the genus Pimpinella. It grows naturally in Egypt, and is cultivated in Spain and Malta, whence the seeds are imported. The stalk rises a foot and a half high, dividing into slender branches, garnished with narrow leaves, cut into three or four narrow segments. The branches terminate in large loose umbels, composed of smaller umbels or rays, on long footstalks. The flowers are small and of a yellowish white; the seeds oblong and swelling. Anise seeds have an aromatic smell, and a pleasant warm taste; they are useful in warming the stomach and expelling wind.NWAD ANISE.2

    ANISE SEED, n. The seed of anise.

    ANKER, n.

    A measure of liquids used in Holland, containing about 32 gallons, English measure.NWAD ANKER.2

    Chambers says it contains two stekans; each stekan, 16 mengles; each mengle, 2 wine quarts.NWAD ANKER.3

    ANKLE, n. ank’l. The joint which connects the foot with the leg.

    ANKLE-BONE, n. The bone of the ankle.

    ANNALIST, n. [See Annals.] A writer of annals.

    ANNALIZE, v.t. To record; to write annals. [Not much used.]

    ANNALS, n. plu. [L. amnales, annalis, from annus, a year, the root of which may be the Celtic an, ain, a great circle. Varro says the word annus signifies a great circle.]

    1. A species of history digested in order of time, or a relation of events in chronological order, each event being recorded under the year in which it happened. Annals differ from history, in merely relating events, without observations on the motives, causes and consequences, which, in history, are more diffusively illustrated.NWAD ANNALS.2

    2. The books containing annals, as the annals of Tacitus.NWAD ANNALS.3

    ANNATS, n. [L. annus.]

    A year’s income of a spiritual living; the first fruits, originally given to the Pope, upon the decease of a bishop, abbot or parish clerk, and paid by his successor. In England, they were, at the reformation, vested in the king, and in the reign of Queen Anne, restored to the church, and appropriated to the augmentation of poor livings.NWAD ANNATS.2

    ANNEAL, v.t.

    1. To heat; to heat, as glass and iron for the purpose of rendering them less brittle, or to fix colors; vulgarly called nealing. This is done by heating the metal nearly to fluidity, in an oven or furnace, and suffering it to cool gradually. Metals made hard and brittle by hammering. by this process recover their malleability. The word is applied also to the baking of tiles.NWAD ANNEAL.2

    2. To temper by heat; and Shenstone uses it for tempering by cold.NWAD ANNEAL.3

    ANNEALED, pp. Heated; tempered; made malleable and less brittle by heat.

    ANNEALING, ppr. heating; tempering by heat.

    ANNEX, v.t. [L. annecto, annexum.]

    1. To unite at the end; as to annex a codicil to a will. To subjoin, to affix.NWAD ANNEX.2

    2. To unite, as a smaller thing to a greater; as to annex a province to a kingdom.NWAD ANNEX.3

    3. To unite to something proceeding, as the main object; to connect with; as to annex a penalty to a prohibition, or punishment to guilt.NWAD ANNEX.4

    ANNEX, v.i. To join; to be united.

    ANNEXATION, n. The act of annexing, or uniting at the end; conjunction; addition; the act of connecting; union. In English law, the uniting of lands or rents to the crown.

    ANNEXED, pp. Joined at the end; connected with; affixed.

    ANNEXING, ppr. Uniting at the end; affixing.

    ANNEXION, n. The act of annexing; annexation; addition. [Little used.]

    ANNEXMENT, n. The act of annexing; the thing annexed.

    ANNIHILABLE, a. That may be annihilated.

    ANNIHILATE, v.t. [L. ad and nihilum, nothing, of ne, not, and hilum, a trifle.]

    1. To reduce to nothing; to destroy the existence of.NWAD ANNIHILATE.2

    No human power can annihilate matter.NWAD ANNIHILATE.3

    2. To destroy the form or peculiar distinctive properties, so that the specific thing no longer exists; as, to annihilate a forest by cutting and carrying away the trees, though the timber may still exist; to annihilate a house by demolishing the structure.NWAD ANNIHILATE.4

    ANNIHILATED, pp. Reduced to nothing; destroyed.

    ANNIHILATING, ppr. Reducing to nothing; destroying the specific form of.


    1. The act of reducing to nothing or non-existence; or the act of destroying the form or combination of parts under which a thing exists, so that the name can no longer be applied to it, as the annihilation of a corporation.NWAD ANNIHILATION.2

    2. The state of being reduced to nothing.NWAD ANNIHILATION.3

    ANNIVERSARILY, adv. Annually.

    ANNIVERSARY, a. [L. anniversarius, of annus, year, and verto, to turn.]

    Returning with the year, at a stated time; annual; yearly; as an anniversary feast.NWAD ANNIVERSARY.2


    1. A stated day returning with the revolution of the year. The term is applied to a day on which some remarkable event is annually celebrated, or a day on which an interesting event is commemorated by solemnities of religion, or exhibitions of respect. In the Romish church, a day in which an office is yearly performed for the souls of the deceased.NWAD ANNIVERSARY.4

    2. The act of celebration; performance in honor of an event.NWAD ANNIVERSARY.5

    ANNO DOMINI. [L.] In the year of our Lord, noting the time from our Savior’s incarnation; as Anno Domini, or A.D. 1800.

    This was written Anno Domini, 1809 and revised A.D. 1825 and 1827.NWAD ANNO_DOMINI.2

    ANNOMINATION, n. [L. ad and nominatio, from nomino, to name, from nomen.]

    1. A pun; the use of words nearly alike in sound, but of different meanings; a paronomasy.NWAD ANNOMINATION.2

    2. Alliteration, or the use of two or more words successively beginning with the same letter.NWAD ANNOMINATION.3

    ANNONA, n. [L. annoma, from annus, a year, and signifying a year’s production or increase; hence provisions.]

    The custard apple, a genus of several species, one of which, the papaw, is common in the southern and western parts of the United States. [See Papaw.]NWAD ANNONA.2

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