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Man’s Nature and Destiny

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    NEPHESH AS USED IN THE SCRIPTURES

    The word nephesh occurs 745 times in the Old Testament, and is translated by the term “soul” about 473 times. In every instance in the Old Testament where the word “soul” occurs, it is from nephesh, with the exception of Job 30:15, where it comes from n’dee-vah, and Isaiah 57:16, where it is from n’shah-mah. But the mere use of the word “soul” determines nothing; for it cannot be claimed to signify an immortal part, until we somewhere find immortality affirmed of it.MND 46.4

    Besides the word “soul,” nephesh is translated “life” and “lives,” as in Genesis 1:20, 30, in all 118 times. It is translated “person,” as in Genesis 14:21, in all 29 times. It is translated “mind,” as in Genesis 23:8, in all 15 times. It is translated “heart,” as in Exodus 23:9, in all 15 times. It is translated “body,” or “dead body,” as in Numbers 6:6, in all 11 times. It is translated “will,” as in Psalm 27:12, in all 4 times. It is translated “appetite,” as in Proverbs 23:2, twice; “lust,” as in Psalm 78:18, twice; “thing,” as in Leviticus 11:10, twice.MND 46.5

    Besides the foregoing, it is rendered by the various pronouns, and by the words, “breath, beast, fish, creature, ghost, pleasure, desire,” etc., in all forty-three different ways. Nephesh is never rendered “spirit.”MND 47.1

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