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    April 20, 1893

    “Unity and Uniformity” The Present Truth 9, 8.


    E. J. Waggoner

    Unity and Uniformity.-There may be the most perfect uniformity without the slightest approach to unity. A box full of marbles may be exactly uniform as regards size and shape and colour and the material from which they are made; but there is no unity among them, and it is impossible that there should be. There may be the same uniformity in a gross of buttons, but there can be no unity. There may be a connection between the buttons, by means of a string, but that is not union of the buttons.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 113.1

    In like manner there may be uniformity among people, without any unity. Since the days of Constantine strenuous efforts have been put forth by the ecclesiastical politicians to produce uniformity, and these efforts have been thought to be in the interests of Christian unity. In some cases uniformity has been attained, but there has been no more unity than there is in a gross of buttons fastened together by a string.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 113.2

    The Bible is full of the idea of unity in the church of Christ, but we do not read so much about uniformity. This unity is to be the unity of life and growth, and not a mere outward connection. In Christ’s prayer to the Father for His disciples, He said, “And the glory that Thou gavest Me, I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one; I in them, and Thou in Me, that they may be made perfect in one.” John 17:22, 23. Here we see that the glory of the Lord is to effect the union of believers, and the union is to be that of the Father and the Son.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 113.3

    The union of the Father and the Son is union of Spirit. We can not comprehend this union, but we may know that it is not a forced union, but that it results from their very nature. They have one life. Their thoughts and purposes are the same, not because they come together and compare notes and agree to be alike, but because one life is in them both. So the union of believers is to be a vital union, or it is not any union at all. It is not accomplished by strife and debate and decisions of majorities, but by yielding the mind to Christ and hearing His voice. They are to be united by the mind and Spirit of Christ. The life of the Father and the Son in each member of the church will produce the most perfect union in the whole body.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 113.4

    For the human body is the most perfect example of unity, and it is the example that the Bible gives us. Christ is the head of the body, the church. Ephesians 1:22, 23; Colossians 1:18. “For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit. For the body is not one member, but many.” 1 Corinthians 12:12-14. In the human body there are many members, and each member has a different office from the rest; there is not uniformity of action among the members, but there is the most perfect unity. All work together in perfect harmony for one object. So it is in the body of Christ. “There are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 113.5

    This gives no ground for the idea that there may be divisions in the church of Christ, one division believing one thing, and another division believing and practising another thing. God has tempered the body together, that there should be no schism in the body.” 1 Corinthians 12:24, 25. “There is one body, and one Spirit, even as we are called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.” Ephesians 4:4-6. The apostle’s exhortation is, that ye all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you, but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment.” 1 Corinthians 1:10. But let it be borne in mind that this union is not artificial, but natural; not the human nature, however, but the divine nature.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 113.6

    All political efforts for uniformity are antagonistic to the Gospel. A prominent man has recently stated that unity of religion is essential to the existence of a nation. That is what the Czar of Russia thinks, and the result is the most cruel and oppressive tyranny. That idea, which is seizing the most enlightened nations at the present day, is the foundation of the Inquisition. Christ desires unity, but He does not try to force it, because the unity which is essential is the unity of growth into Christ, and growth cannot be forced. The religion of Jesus is love, and force kills love. Where there is no love there is no righteousness; and therefore since “righteousness exalteth a nation,” it is evident that the surest way to debase a nation is to attempt to produce perfect uniformity in matters of religion by means of law.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 113.7

    “Giving Thanks” The Present Truth 9, 8.


    E. J. Waggoner

    “In everything give thanks; for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus concerning you.” 1 Thessalonians 5:18. This is one of the most important commands in the Bible. On it depends all our peace, and the receiving of all the blessings which God has for us. No matter if everything does not appear favourable, we are to give thanks therein. This, like all of God’s commandments, is not an arbitrary rule for us to follow blindly, but is most reasonable when we consider it from the side of God.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 113.8

    Very often people think that they have nothing for which to be thankful. This is the greatest mistake in the world. Even professed Christians often give way to such thoughts. Of course if they were to give candid thought to the matter they could see enough to give thanks for under all circumstances. But fortunately God has not left to us the task of searching out among the affairs of our lives those things for which we should be thankful. Here are the Divine directions: “Be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit; speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord; giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.” Ephesians 5:18-20. So that instead of there ever not being anything for which we may return thanks, there is never anything for which we may not thank the Lord.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 113.9

    Some one may say, “I don’t see how this can be done; there are some things of which it is impossible to be thankful.” Not if one is a Christian. Some one will bring up to me some circumstance, and will ask, “How can I be thankful for that? What is there about that to be thankful for?” I cannot answer those questions. You must take them to the Lord, and let Him answer them for you. It is not necessary for us to know everything. It is sufficient for us to know that God knows all things; that He knows the way that we take, and is leading us, if we yield to Him; that He cares for us far more than we can care for ourselves; and that He has all power to do the good for us that His love prompts Him to do.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 114.1

    If we know but one thing, and really know that, we may be thankful under all circumstances, and for all things. “And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to His purpose.” Romans 8:28. Some will ask, “How may we know that?” We may know it because God says so. That is reason enough. We are not called upon to know how it can be, but only to know the fact. “But perhaps I am not one of them who love the Lord.” You can settle that very easily. It is the easiest thing in the world to love God. But we must not think that we are to force ourselves to love Him. No; that which is easy does not require force; and where there is force there is never love. Force destroys love. How may we love God? By thinking about Him. We cannot help loving things that are altogether lovely, if we but know them. God is love. He has shown His love for us in giving Himself for us. “God commendeth His love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.” Romans 5:8. Whosoever meditates upon this one thing, cannot fail to love God. “We love, because He first loved us.” 1 John 4:19, R.V.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 114.2

    Now if we love God we shall know that all things work together for our good. We shall know it because He says so; and if we love Him we shall believe Him. Mark, that it does not say that all things shall work together for our good, but that all things do work for good. We do not have to wait until some future time for the good, but we get it as we go along. Everything that comes to the Christian is good. “Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? As it is written, For thy sake we are killed all the day long; we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter. Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors through Him that loved us. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.” Romans 8:35-39.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 114.3

    Well, then, if everything that comes to the Christian is good, and he knows that it is good, how can he help giving thanks? Wouldn’t he be a surley fellow, who would complain all the time, while he was all the time receiving good things? It is not for us to ask, “How can any good come from this or that thing?” We have nothing to do with that. God has taken on Himself the task of making all things work out our good, and as long as He knows how to do it, and is able to do it, that should be enough for us. But we may see this much, for the encouragement of our faith: Everything is in Christ. “He that spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things?” Romans 8:32. Mark it “all things.” Both the things that seem bad, and the things that seem to be good. All come to us in Christ, if we are only His. The devil seeks our destruction, but Christ has conquered him, and has power to turn the greatest curses that he would bring upon us into blessings. He can make the wrath of man to praise Him. See how He overruled the hatred of Joseph’s brethren, and made it work out His own purposes.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 114.4

    “Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us; for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree; that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.” Galatians 3:13, 14. This one thing contains everything. The mystery of the cross has in it all other mysteries. It is by means of it that all things work together for our good. The law has for sinners only curses and death. But Christ receives in Himself, on the cross, the curse of the law, and suffers the death that the law pronounces upon the ungodly, and, lo, to every one who believes Christ, and through faith hides in Him, the law brings life and blessing. In His body death is turned to life, and cursing is turned to blessing. Here is Divine alchemy, far surpassing the wildest dreams of the old philosophers. They thought to find a means whereby all metals could be turned into perishing gold; but in Christ everything is transmuted into the gold of the everlasting kingdom of God,-into eternal life and glory.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 114.5

    In view of the cross, therefore, how plain becomes the exhortation and promises, “Be careful for nothing; but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God. And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.” Philippians 4:6, 7. Thanksgiving must be a part of every prayer. Thanksgiving for what? Why, for all things, as we have already read. Thank God not only for blessings in the past, but for the blessings that you are about to receive. Thank Him for the things for which you are making supplication. Only on this condition are you sure of receiving anything. “Therefore I say unto you, What things soever ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, and ye shall have them.” Mark 11:24.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 114.6

    “How can we believe that we have the things, when we don’t have them?” We can’t, and we are not expected to. But we are to believe that we have the things, because we have them in the very promises of God, which are the basis of our prayers. If it were not for the promises of God, we could not pray at all. Prayer is simply coming to God with the promises He has made, and presenting them to Him, and claiming all that there is in them. The word of the Lord is a creative word. The things named is in the name. The substance of the thing promised is in the promise. When we take the promises in faith, then we have the things promised, and of course we can thank the Lord for them. Faith is the appropriating of the words of God. When it is said that we cannot receive anything without faith, that means that we cannot receive anything unless we take it. But if we believe the promises of God, then we do have the things asked for, and our thanksgiving from the heart is the evidence of our faith. If we have not faith enough to thank God for the things asked for, we have not faith enough to take the things that God has promised.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 114.7

    If every one would strictly follow the Divine injunction, to give thanks in everything and for everything, and in every prayer, there would be fewer lifeless prayers. Indeed there would not be any. There would be no talking at random in prayer. No one would dare ask for a thing for which he could not thank the Lord at the time, and that means that he would not dare ask for things for which there is no warrant in the word of the Lord. We should ask only in accordance with His will, and then we should know that God hears us, and that we have the things desired. See 1 John 5:14, 15. And then the peace of God, that passeth all understanding would keep our hearts and minds. Peace would flow as a river, and we should be filled with righteousness, even as the waves fill the sea.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 114.8

    One thing more: the good from thanksgiving is all to us. We do not thank the Lord for His benefit, but for our own salvation. Unthankfulness is the first step towards idolatry. The heathen became such, “because that, when they knew God, they glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful.” Romans 1:21. Thankfulness must necessarily result from a recognition of God and of His goodness. No one can realise that “every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning,” without being deeply grateful to Him. Therefore whoever is not thankful, does not worship God. Unthankfulness arises from selfishness. The unthankful person is so because he is absorbed in himself, and worships self rather than God. Let us beware, then, lest we, through unthankfulness, lose not only the blessings which God has for us, but even the knowledge of God Himself. True worship consists not in making petitions to God, but in thanksgiving to God.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 115.1

    “‘Christian Mission Colony’” The Present Truth 9, 8.


    E. J. Waggoner

    A few years ago William F. Davis, of Boston, Mass., U.S.A., refused to acknowledge the right of the Council of that city to prohibit preaching on Boston Common, and as he would not acknowledge their right to prohibit, he would not ask their leave. So he preached and was put in gaol. He has now organized a “Christian Mission Colony.” “All who join must sign a covenant to repent of their sins, give all to God, and take Jehovah God as their Father, Jehovah Jesus for their Saviour, the Holy Spirit of Jehovah for their Sanctifier, the Word of God for their Creed and Rule, Christians only for their intimate friends, and God’s promises for their inheritance. They also avow their fixed purpose never to knowingly give aid or countenance to Romanism, oath-bound secretism, sectism, poisoning with deadly drugs, covetousness, worldly amusements, indolence, or insubordination.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 115.2

    How difficult it is for men to learn to exercise that freedom to others that they claim for themselves. Although he does not know it, his “Colony” has in it all the seeds of the Inquisition. Every man’s conscience and private life will have to undergo almost daily examination, in order to be sure that worldliness is not creeping into the Colony. But aside from this, the principle of exclusion is wrong. God wants His people to be the salt of the earth, and salt that is shut up in a box is not of any use. It may as well have no savour as to have it not in use. Christ does not want His people taken out of the world, but kept from the evil. Christianity that cannot stand contact with the world is not worth preserving.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 115.3

    “The Creature Instead of the Creator” The Present Truth 9, 8.


    E. J. Waggoner

    “For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness; because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath showed it unto them. For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse; because that, when they knew God, they glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things. Wherefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their own hearts unto uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonoured among themselves; for that they exchanged the truth of God for a lie and worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed for ever.” Romans 1:18-25, R.V.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 115.4

    The above is a simple statement of the process by which men became heathen, losing not only the knowledge of the true God, but losing all knowledge, and becoming foolish in every sense of the word. We say it is a statement of the way in which men became heathen; but the same course will produce the same results still, and, unfortunately, that way is not a thing of the past.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 115.5

    The whole thing is summed up in the words, “exchanged the truth of God for a lie,” or, as in the old version, “changed the truth of God into a lie.” Both renderings are needed in order to get the full sense.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 115.6

    What is the truth of God? It is that He is the Creator, that He “created all things by Jesus Christ.” “For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things were created by Him, and for Him; and He is before all things, and by Him all things consist.” Colossians 1:16, 17. He upholds all things by the word of His power. Hebrews 1:3.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 115.7

    That is, not only was nothing brought into existence except through Christ, but nothing continues in existence except by His power. Christ is the power of God (1 Corinthians 1:24), and the power of God is seen in the things that are made. Wherever in nature force and energy are manifested, there is evidence of the personal presence and working of Christ. The force of matter is the power of God, which is Christ.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 115.8

    Men speak of “gravitation” as though it were something inherent in the heavenly bodies, keeping them from crashing into one another, yet no one can define gravitation. But the Scriptures let us into the secret. “To whom then will ye liken Me, or shall I be equal? saith the Holy One. Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these, that bringeth out their host by number; He calleth them all by name; by the greatness of His might, and for that He is strong in power, not one is lacking.” Isaiah 40:25, 26. Gravitation, therefore, is simply the power of the word of God, He upholdeth all things by the word of His power.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 115.9

    So with “cohesion,” the force which is manifested in like particles of matter, binding them together. Cohesion means, literally, to stick together. Ask the “philosopher” what holds the particles of matter together, and he will say that it is the force of cohesion, or adhesion if it be unlike particles of matter. That is to say, that they are held together by the power of holding together! The Scriptures tell us that as in Christ all things were created, so “in Him all things consist,” or hold together. So the power which holds matter together is the power of Christ.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 115.10

    But such an answer as this would be considered foolishness. Even professed Christians have become so much under the influence of those who do not like to retain God in their knowledge, that they seem to think it is little less than sacrilege to thus recognize God in everything. Accordingly, God is left out of their system of philosophy, and matter is deified. Thus the truth of God is changed into a lie. The truth that God is seen in all His works, that there is nothing without His personal presence and care, is exchanged for the lie that matter controls itself by certain “natural laws” residing in it. This is the germ of all idolatry. Instead of seeing the power of God in everything, and glorifying Him, men saw everything as god. To the creature was attributed the power of the Creator.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 115.11

    A striking instance of this is furnished by the reflections of a noted modern philosopher upon a view of the Alps. The paragraph is given an honourable place in a daily paper. Here it is:-PTUK April 20, 1893, page 115.12

    “I looked over this wondrous scene towards Mont Blanc, the Grand Combin, the Dent Blanche, the Weisshorn, the Dom, and the thousand lesser peaks which seemed to join in the celebration of the risen day. I asked myself as on previous occasions, How was this colossal work performed? Who chiseled these mighty and picturesque masses out of a mere protuberance of the earth? And the answer was at hand. Ever young, ever mighty-with the vigour of a thousand worlds still within him-the real sculptor was even then climbing up the eastern sky. It was he who raised aloft the waters which cut out these ravines; it was he who planted the glaciers on the mountain-slopes, thus giving gravity a plough to open out the valleys; and it is he who, acting through the ages, will finally lay low these mighty monuments, rolling them gradually seaward, sowing the seeds of continents to be; so that the people of an older earth may see mould spread, and corn wave over the hidden rocks which, at this moment, bear the weight of the Jungfrau.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 116.1

    This is actual sun worship, for as there is no thought of the Creator, there can be no feeling of thankfulness to Him; and whatever glow of joy or admiration is called out by the sight is directed to the creature. The creature entirely eclipses the Creator.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 116.2

    Now when one thus deifies the creature and forgets the Creator, what is to hinder the actual worship of the creature? Nothing in the world. It was just in this way that in ancient times men came to worship the host of heaven, and birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things. In the same way man was deified. Becoming vain in their imaginations, their foolish heart was darkened, says the apostle. The historian puts it thus:-PTUK April 20, 1893, page 116.3

    “There were a few sages of Greece and Rome who had conceived a more exalted, and, in some respects, a juster idea of human nature, though it must be confessed that in the sublime inquiry, their reason had been often guided by their imagination, and that their imagination had been prompted by their vanity. When they viewed with complacency the extent of their own mental powers, when they exercised the various faculties of memory, of fancy, and of judgment, in the most profound speculations, or the most important labours, and when they reflected on the desire for fame, which transported them into future ages, far beyond the bounds of death and the grave, they were unwilling to confound themselves with the beasts of the field, or to suppose that a being for whose dignity they entertained the most sincere admiration, could be limited to a spot of earth, and to a few years of duration.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 116.4

    So from looking upon inanimate nature, not as manifestly, but as having, the power of God, they came to deify man. Accordingly they very naturally came to consider the soul not merely as immortal, but as really self-existent-from everlasting to everlasting. Consequently men were regarded as Divine, and were worshipped after death. But it was not simply certain men, but humanity, that was regarded as Divine; and therefore the weaknesses and vices of humanity were regarded as attributes of Divinity. So their gods were monsters of crime, and the results stated in the first of Romans naturally followed.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 116.5

    Like causes will invariably produce like results. Therefore the inevitable result of leaving God out of the knowledge that is taught the people, will be the same wickedness that is described in the first of Romans. Read the closing verses: “Even as they refused to have God in their knowledge, God gave them up unto a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not fitting; beig filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malignity; whisperers, backbiters, hateful to God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, without understanding, covenant-breakers, without natural affection, unmerciful.” Romans 1:28-31.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 116.6

    Now compare with this list the following: “But know this, that in the last days grievous times shall come. For men shall be lovers of self, lovers of money, boastful, haughty, railers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, without natural affection, implacable, slanderers, without self-control, fierce, no lovers of good, traitors, headstrong, puffed up, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God; holding a form of godliness, but have denied the power thereof.” 2 Timothy 3:1-5, R.V.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 116.7

    What is the safeguard against this? The Gospel in its fulness. The Gospel is the power of God unto salvation, to every one that believeth; and the power of God is creative power. Christ, the power of God, must be honoured as Creator. He must be recognised as the possessor of all power in heaven and in earth, and His power to save must be recognised as the power by which He creates. The power by which He keeps His people from falling, is the same power by which He upholds all nature.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 116.8

    The sign of this is the Sabbath,-the memorial of His wonderful works. God’s power and Divinity are known by the things that He has made, and the Sabbath is a sign by which men know God. Ezekiel 20:12, 20. It makes known the sanctifying power of God. So the Sabbath kept in Spirit and truth means the perfection of God. It means not simply resting upon the day of the Sabbath,-that is the form; but it means committing the soul to God in well-doing, as unto a faithful Creator,-that is the power of godliness.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 116.9

    Here then we have before us the special danger of the last days, and the special message which warns against it. The message is that God is the Creator and upholder of all things, and that the Sabbath is the sign of His power. The Sabbath kept indeed, through the Spirit, is the sign of God’s power working in the man just as it works in the sun, moon, and stars, and the plants. The power of God will be manifested in that man; but just as he refrains from deifying nature, and recognises God as the Supreme power in nature, so he disclaims any power of goodness in himself, and depends alone on God. And being thus grounded upon the everlasting Rock he is secure from the flood of error which Satan brings over the earth, and from the destruction which must follow.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 116.10

    “A Sign of the Times” The Present Truth 9, 8.


    E. J. Waggoner

    Nothing is more noteworthy than the growing prevalence of the observance of the so-called “festivals of the church.” Mark it well, that they are church days, and not days commanded in the Bible. A generation ago the observance of Easter and Christmas was confined to the Roman Catholic Church, and its eldest daughter, the Church of England; but now nearly all the churches of the land make almost as much of them as do the first mentioned.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 118.1

    The Congregationalists are pointing with more and more pride to their descent from the Puritans, and have just celebrated the death of three of them, who were martyred in this city three hundred years ago, because they rejected Popish forms and vestments; yet we have seen Congregationalist houses of worship decorated for Eastern and Christmas; and less than a month ago a body of Congregationalist ministers in the city of Chicago voted “to recommend that so far as practicable Holy Week be observed by our churches with special devotional services, and more particularly on Thursday evening and Friday afternoon.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 118.2

    In the discussion of the resolution, one prominent minister “took ground in favour of the adoption of the Church Year, or at least so much of it as relates to Passion Week and Easter.” His idea was that it would “bring before the churches the life and personality of Christ,” and this, he said, “is a great need at the present time.” Indeed it is; but think of it! A professed minister of the Gospel seriously arguing for the adoption of the Roman Catholic “Church Year,” in order that the life and personality of Christ may be brought before the churches! Heaven pity the churches, if this observance of one day or one week in the year, is all that they have to bring before them the life and personality of Christ. But the growth of ritualism is always in proportion to the decadence of spirituality. And this then is one sign of the times.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 118.3

    But it is when we consider the origin of these festivals, that we see where the churches are drifting, in their observance of them. We shall confine our attention at this time wholly to Easter. John Richard Green the historian, says that “Eoster, the god of the dawn or the spring, lends his name to the Christian festival of the resurrection.”-History of the English People, section 20. Dr. Schaff says, “The English Easter, Anglo-Saxon Oster, German Ostern, is at all events connected with East and sunrise.... . The comparison of sunrise and the natural spring with the new moral creation in the resurrection of Christ, and the transfer of the celebration of Ostara, the old German divinity of the rising, health-bringing light, to the Christian Easter festival, was the easier, because all nature is a symbol of spirit, and the heathen myths are dim presentiments and carnal anticipations of Christian truths.”-History of the Christian Church, vol. 1, sec. 99.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 118.4

    We may not accept the statement that the heathen myths are presentiments of Christian truths; but the statement is of importance as showing that the so-called Christian festival of Easter had only a heathen origin. It was a part of the nature worship of the ancients. The fact is very well stated in an editorial in the Daily Chronicle of March 31: “Easter Sunday, too, is related to the ancient celebrations, as that of Demeter, at Eleusis, of the annual resurrection of nature after the long black winter sleep. At Eleusis the very appearance of the time of the goddess might have suggested to a later observer the aspect of a Catholic cathedral. The altar was ablaze with lights. The smoke of incense filled the air, the chant of thanksgiving rose and fell on the ear.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 119.1

    When men began to worship and serve the creature instead of the Creator, their chief deity was the sun. They had great festival days to celebrate the various positions of the sun. After midsummer the sun sinks lower and lower toward the horizon, until it reaches its lowest point about the close of the year, when it begins to rise higher. This was celebrated as the birthday of the sun. Then there was the festival in the spring, to celebrate the new life that was springing up in the earth, under the influence of the sun. The early Christians saw how attached the pagans were to these superstitious ceremonies, and so they made them church festivals. They professed to see in the heathen worship of the sun a symbolic worship of the “Sun of Righteousness,” and so they called the pagan festivals in honour of the “birth” and the new life of the sun, the celebration of the birth and resurrection of Christ. Thus they eased their consciences for adopting the heathen festivals, and at the same time they made the way very easy for the heathen to come into the church which was thus paganized. Mosheim says that as early as the second century a large part of the Christian observances and institutions “had the aspect of the pagan mysteries.” The Roman Catholic Church is, therefore, simply the perpetuation of ancient Paganism under the name of Christianity.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 119.2

    Professed Protestants may think that it is a light thing that they are adopting these “Church” festivals. The Chronicle says that “the fierce ultra-Puritanism, which looked askance on Good Friday as a ‘Popish’ celebration,” does not find much favour with people in modern England; and there are few people Protestant enough to dispute the fact. But in so far as it is a fact it marks the decline of Protestantism and the growth of the Papacy. It marks the rejection of the traditions of men. Roman Catholics are not slow to see whether the professed Protestant bodies are drifting; they read the signs of the times in this respect very accurately. Here is what is said by the Catholic Times and Catholic Opinion of March 31st, under the heading of “Holy Week in London“:-PTUK April 20, 1893, page 119.3

    “That Holy Week is becoming a religious reality to thousands of people in London, outside of the Church, is but one more sign of the slow and gradual undoing amongst us of the work of the 16th century Reformation. Fifty years ago, in this so-called Christian land, it is not too much to say that Good Friday meant nothing more than a somewhat gloomy Sunday, enlivened by an early consumption of hot cross buns. The very term of Holy Week had dropped out of the ordinary vocabulary, and no pretence was made of marking, by outward observance, the most solemn portion of the Christian year. Theatres, entertainments, amusements of all sorts went on as usual, and it is a fact that not so many years ago Her Majesty the Queen, wishing to give a ball to her servants and dependents, fixed on Good Friday for the celebration of the festivity, without apparently the inappropriateness of the date having occurred to anyone within the Royal circle.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 119.4

    “Such obliviousness, we venture to hope, would be impossible to-day. ‘The old order changeth giving place to the new.’ The old-fashioned dissenting prejudice against anything and everything in the shape of a church festival, whether mournful or joyful, is slowly dying out. To be sure, there is as yet not much resemblance during Holy Week between London and a Catholic city like Madrid, where for three days all traffic is stopped, and pious crowds pass slowly on foot from church to church. But a beginning has undoubtedly been made, and every year sees some progress achieved.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 119.5

    In closing, the editorial says that what it calls “this re-awakening sense in the English conscience,” is telling “in favour of the Catholic church.” We should not think that this would be pleasant reading for those professed Protestants who are thus following in the wake of Rome, but we fear that very few of them will take warning. There is a great outcry against the encroachments of Rome, and strong talk about the enforcement of law; but that will not affect anything. It is not by law that Roman Catholicism is to be successfully met. Civil laws concerning matters of religion are what made the Catholic Church in the first place, and they are what foster its growth now. For while professed Protestants are seeking the aid of the law in their work, the enemy is coming in silently, and yet like a flood. The only thing that can successfully cope with Rome is the Spirit of the Lord working upon individual hearts who are loyal to the word of God, and who will give not the slightest heed to anything that cannot be found therein.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 119.6

    “Wholesale Conversion” The Present Truth 9, 8.


    E. J. Waggoner

    On Sunday, March 11, the “wholesale conversion of the Roman Catholic inhabitants of the parish of Zaba, in Hungary, to Protestantism,” took place. So says the dispatch, which adds that “the explanation of this colossal conversion is to be found in the new drastic law, which enacts that Catholic religious services in Hungary must be conducted in the Hungarian language. The inhabitants of Zaba are Germans, and they have publicly stated that they prefer to enter the Protestant Church, in which divine service in German is allowed, to attending service in a language they are ignorant of.” That, however, was not a conversion, but transference. As a matter of fact, “Protestantism” has about ceased to be a distinctive term. Such “conversions” as the above are on a par with that of the man who changes his church relationship because he dislikes the pastor or some of the members.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 119.7

    “Spelling Sunday” The Present Truth 9, 8.


    E. J. Waggoner

    The New York Mail and Express has decided to spell Sunday hence forward with an “o” instead of a “u,” thus, Sonday, so as to indicate that the day is a Christian and not a heathen institution; and a request is made for everybody to do the same. The editor says:-PTUK April 20, 1893, page 119.8

    “We are only proposing a reform as to one day, which can be accomplished by the least amount of change. It is simply to close the top of the u. The proposed change philologically and etymologically only amounts to a part of one vowel-making u into o-and yet, morally the change from Sun to Son is the change from heathenism to Christianity.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 119.9

    Exactly; Sunday observance is just that far removed from heathenism and no more. “Leo the Great speaks of Christians in Rome, who first worshipped the rising Sun, doing homage to the pagan Apollo before repairing to the Basilica of St. Peter.”-Schaff. As professed heathen, the son had been their chief god. As professed Christians they still worship it, but “Christianised” the custom by claiming that they were doing homage to “the Sun of Righteousness,” the Son of God. Sunday is and always will be only “the venerable day of the sun,” and its heathen character can no more be changed by a change of spelling than the character of a thief can be changed by an alias.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 119.10

    “Superstitious Service” The Present Truth 9, 8.


    E. J. Waggoner

    The following bit of nineteenth century superstition is related in all seriousness by no less an authority than the Catholic Times and Catholic Opinion:-PTUK April 20, 1893, page 120.1

    “Our readers will remember that last year a difference of opinion arose between the ecclesiastical authorities of the Cathedral of Treves and the Church of Cagenteuil in France. At each place they maintained that they possessed the tunic which our Lord wore on the day of His Passion. Leo XIII. thereupon commissioned Mgr. Goux to make special investigations on the subject, and that prelate has now published an interesting report setting forth the opinion he has formed. Judging by historical documents he is convinced of the authenticity of the Holy Coat of Treves. At the same time he does not maintain that the Argenteuil tunic is spurious. On the contrary it seems to be his belief that both belonged to our Lord, the Argenteuil relic being a vest and the other a coat. Like the garment exhibited at Treves the tunic preserved at Argenteuil is all of one piece. In shape it is said to be similar to tunics worn by the Copts during the first two centuries of the Christian era. About the shoulders and loins there are large dark spots, and a careful chemical analysis has placed it beyond doubt that they were caused by blood stains. The inquiry, whilst leaving the honour of Treves undiminished, will be of considerable service to Argenteuil.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 120.2

    We saw a statement of the above several days ago, but thought it must be a joke. But the secret of the superstition, like that of the indulgences in the sixteen century, is the “service” rendered to the cathedrals.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 120.3

    “Protestantism” The Present Truth 9, 8.


    E. J. Waggoner

    There is the ring of true religious liberty in the reply of Rev. J. Guinness Rogers to one who charged him with being favourable to the Papacy, because of a certain position which he takes. After stating that he yields to no man in his antagonism to the Papacy, whether in its political or religious aspects, he says: “But Protestantism is to me something more than an ‘ism,’ and in so far as it is narrowed down to a mere ‘ism,’ its power is weakened. It is a contention for liberty, or to fulfil its proper mission, when it is not as ready to respect the rights of a Roman Catholic as to insist on its own.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 120.4

    “High Caste and Low Caste” The Present Truth 9, 8.


    E. J. Waggoner

    Boys, did you ever have a new pupil come into your school who could not appear quite so well as yourself, who did not have so much money to spend, and whose parents worked harder than yours for a living? Did you ever make fun of him, or feel ashamed to be seen doing him some kindness, because he did not belong to your “set,” as you called it?PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.1

    Girls, did you ever turn your head the other way, and draw your dress aside for fear it might touch the plainer one of your little neighbour as she passed by?PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.2

    If ever you are tempted to feel or sob so again, stop and think: That is the way the heathen of India do, those who know not God or His word.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.3

    It is not strange that the heathen should do so, because they have never known that it is wrong. But it must grieve the kind Father of all very much to see us do so when we know of His love, and when He tells us so plainly in His letter that “One is our Master, even Christ, and all ye are brethren.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.4

    If you could once visit India and see how much better some classes of people are treated than other classes, and how selfish and cruel it causes people to become, I think you would see the foolishness and sinfulness of all rush feelings and actions.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.5

    “The Hindus believe that after Brahma, their great god of the universe, had made the world, he made the people to live on it. Out of his mouth came the Brahmins, who were highest of all. This is the priestly caste or class.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.6

    “From Brahma’s shoulders came the next caste, who were strong and brave, and became soldiers and chieftains.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.7

    “Next came the merchants and traders, who sprang from the loins of the god.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.8

    “Lastly, from Brahma’s feet cams the lowest caste of all, the Sudras, who were to be the servants of the higher castes.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.9

    After awhile these four classes were divided into a great many more, until now, jewellers, merchants, shepherds, carpenters, tailors, weavers, robbers, basket-makers, writers, farmers, potters, hunters and fishers, palm cultivators, barbers, washerman, sweepers, and there, all form separate castes. Besides these a great many people do not belong to any caste and are called Pariahs, or out-castes.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.10

    As the Brahmins are the highest caste, they must be treated very politely by all other castes, and must be obeyed. They are given costly presents and worshipped as gods. This has caused the Brahmins to become very proud and selfish. The people do not love them, but are polite to them and treat them well only because they are afraid they will get into trouble if they do not.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.11

    I hope that you will learn all that you can about these different castes, for there are many interesting things that we have not time to tell you.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.12

    If you were a little Hindu and your father were a merchant, you could play only with the children of merchants. If your father were a carpenter, you could eat and drink only with the children of carpenters. It would never do for you to eat with one of lower caste, or drink out of a cup that had been touched by one of lower caste, or give up your religion, or do thousands of other things, or you would lose your caste, and then you would become an out-caste, despised and abused by every one. Your friends would drive you from their doors and leave you to perish from hunger and want. They would rather have you die a thousand times than have you break your caste. “No crime is considered so great as breaking the rules of caste. A man may commit murder and it will not effect his standing. But let him take a mouthful of food, or a drink of water from a low-caste man and he becomes defiled.” And then he has for ever lost his caste unless he can get money enough to buy it back. It matters not whether he did it purposely or not. If he did it by accident it is just the same.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.13

    Once during a great famine in India, when men, women, and children were dying for something be eat, one poor woman was so hungry that she went to a place where food was prepared for them, and ate a little, although it was cooked by one of lower caste. It is said that she then went back to her own village, and was afterwards found lying in the road, so weak and tired that she could do nothing to help herself; and no one would touch her, because by doing so they would get defiled themselves!PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.14

    The Brahmins have the power of giving bank caste to those who have lost it; but they will not unless they get a very great deal of money for it.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.15

    Another thing: If you were a Hindu you would have to learn your father’s trade and never could work at anything else as long as you lived. If your father were a jeweller, then you would be a jeweller, or if he were a street sweeper or a washerman, you could be only a street sweeper or a washerman.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.16

    But we are thankful to say that the feeling about caste is not so strong as it once was. Some are beginning to see how useless and foolish it is. And as the entrance of God’s word giveth light on this, as well as on every other thing that men teed to know on the way to heaven, we know that the Indians will be led into all truth as soon as they learn to follow the true Guide-Book,-God’s precious word.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.17

    But remember that you have the Bible and they have not, and they are your brethren. Therefore you are in debt to them. You are not only to follow the true Guide-Book yourself, but you are to be a light-bearer for Jesus carrying or sending this wonderful lamp of life to these who still sit in darkness and know not the truth.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 124.18

    “Interesting Items” The Present Truth 9, 8.


    E. J. Waggoner

    Scientific men say that the pure white luster of snow is due to the fact that all the elementary colours of light are blended together in the radiance that is thrown off from the surface of the various crystals. More than a thousand distinct and perfect forms of snow crystals have been enumerated and figured by the various investigators.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.1

    -Madagascar has 800 Congregational churches and stations, with 762 ministers.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.2

    -Two thousand houses have been destroyed by fire at the Japanese town of Kanagana.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.3

    -The 800th anniversary festival of Winchester Cathedral has just been celebrated.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.4

    -Paris has now a new water supply, brought to the capital in an aqueduct sixty-three miles long.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.5

    -A railway, the first in Siam, connecting Bangkok with the port of Paknam, has been opened by the King. The first sod of the new line was cut by the King in July, 1891.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.6

    -All Turkish journals have been ordered to cease publication in the morning, and not to appear until afternoon.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.7

    -The Glasgow Town Council has agreed by 22 votes to 4, to petition in favour of the Government Liquor Control Bill.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.8

    -In some weeks upwards of 15,000,000 eggs reach London from the poultry farms of France, Italy, Austria, and Russia.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.9

    -A general strike has been ordered in Belgium on account of the rejection of universal suffrage by the Constituent Assembly.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.10

    -The Legislature of Nova Scotia has given a second reading to a Bill extending the franchise to women on the same terms as men.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.11

    -Gutta-percha was first introduced into Europe from Malaga in 1852. The annual consumption now amounts to some 4,000,000lb.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.12

    -The immense Mormon temple, which has been in process of erection for forty years, at Salt Lake City, Utah, has just been dedicated.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.13

    -The strike of the dockers at Hull has caused much trouble to shippers. Many vessels have been tied up, and the work of the port brought almost to a standstill. There were some serious collisions between the strikers and the police.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.14

    -Reports of most disastrous cyclones come from the United States. Several States have been visited by tornadoes, and many towns have been almost obliterated. In Mississippi a school-house was blown down, and twenty-five children were killed.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.15

    -A serious fire occurred in the Great Western Colliery near Pontypridd in the afternoon of the 11th. Many men were entombed, and a number of lives lost. Several bodies have been recovered. The fire was due to a spark from an underground engine.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.16

    -The Rev. Stepford Brooke has begun at Bedford Chapel a long promised aeries of Sunday evening lectures on the work of Lord Tennyson. We are happy to be able to state, however, from personal knowledge, that there are still a number of ministers who have not yet discarded the Bible.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.17

    -The new law for the suppression of Stundists in Russia provides that all children of Stundists are to be placed under clerical guardians, and are to be baptised in the orthodox Church. The Stundists are further forbidden to employ Orthodox servants in their meeting-houses, while their graves are to be kept apart from those of members of the Orthodox Church. Finally, their passports are to be no marked as to show that they belong to the Stundist sect.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.18

    -A correspondent of the Echo has had an interview with the Rev. Robert R. Kane, LL.D., Vicar of Christ Church, Belfast, who is at the head of the Orangemen of Ulster. To the question, “If Home Rule does come, what then?” the Dr. replied: “Civil war, unquestionably, civil war. I am as absolutely certain of it as that I am sitting and talking now to you. We mean to ignore the Dublin Parliament, refuse to pay its taxes, and if its judges come down to us we will hunt them out of the country.” The Dr. also said: “We already have our police, we are organising our provisional government, and preparing our forces to resist.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.19

    -But recently we were reading in a Catholic journal that the Catholic Church is the mother of religious liberty. Here is a sample: “A member of an evangelical church in a certain town in Austria was active in explaining in his own hired rooms the simple gospel. Without any word of warning as to limiting the meetings to actual members, he was pounced upon by the highest official of the county with a fine of six dollars. He declined to pay any ouch unrighteous fine. After waiting awhile the Government actually attached the best chair and sewing machine. They were duly sealed and left for some time in his dwelling. Not long after the Austrian Government actually sold at public auction the chair and sewing machine to meet the fine imposed for having a few friends (not members) at a simple Bible service in private room.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 126.20

    “Back Page” The Present Truth 9, 8.


    E. J. Waggoner

    Prosecution for Sunday labour is becoming epidemic in England. The Echo of April 7 said:-PTUK April 20, 1893, page 128.1

    “The campaign against trading on Sunday is still being prosecuted at Southampton. For keeping his shop open for selling ice creams on Sunday evening, an Italian was to-day fined by the Borough Bench five shillings and costs. The police have intimated their intention of putting down all Sunday trading.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 128.2

    In the British Weekly, Prof. J. R. Harris gives an account of the finding, by Mrs. Lewis, of Cambridge, of a palimpsest copy of the Gospels in Syriac. They were found in the Convent of St. Catharine, on Mount Sinai. For over a month several scholars have been at the convent, busily engaged in deciphering the text, which can be traced under the more modern writing. It is thought that this Syriac version of the Gospels dates from the middle of the second century.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 128.3

    A bloodless revolution has taken place in Servia. King Alexander, who is not yet seventeen, at a banquet on the 14th, to celebrate a successful examination just passed, suddenly rose and thanked the Regents and Cabinet Ministers, who were present, for their past services, and told them that they would be needed no longer, as he had taken the Government into his own hands. They refused to resign, and were placed under military surveillance. The young king has been acknowledged by the troops and the people.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 128.4

    On the night of the 18th, the Lord Mayor gave a banquet at the Mansion House to Cardinal Vaughan and the Catholic bishops of England. Although a Catholic Lord Mayor has as good a right to entertain his Catholic friends as a Methodist Lord Mayor has to entertain his Methodist friends, this case is really an event in history, since it is the first occasion since Reformation times, on which the Chief Magistrate of the city has entertained the Catholic clergy at the Mansion House. We may be assured that the Catholic hierarchy will make the most of this advantage. But one most significant thing was that in proposing the usual toast to the Queen, the Mayor coupled the Pope with her, and put the Pope first.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 128.5

    In proposing the health of the Pope before that of the Queen, the Lord Mayor did not do dishonour to the Queen so must as to the Lord, as will be seen by the following report of his blasphemous language:-PTUK April 20, 1893, page 128.6

    “And confessing with her their dependence on that King of kings, by whom all kings reigned, and following the old tradition still retained in the great City halls, he united with her “The Church;’ and, as he found himself in that great meeting amidst so brilliant a company of bishops and clergy and other members of the Catholic Church, he prefixed, as their custom was, the health of him, the great head of that Church, vicegerent of the King of kings, who, seated on Rome’s heights in incense-laden atmosphere, as the great husbandman, kept his watchful eye on every portion of his flock, raised up his voice to lead in all emergencies, and sent forth, as he had done to them that day, a careful shepherd to carry out his wish. To him they owed their princely guest, to him was due in this his year of jubilee that homage and respect which their loved Queen, with all her Catholic people, has offered to him. The toast was, ‘The Holy Father and the Queen.’”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 128.7

    A wonderful “temperance victory” was won in London on Saturday, the 8th. A meeting in opposition to the Government Veto Bill had been appointed in Trafalgar Square. Long before the hour, the best space was occupied by several thousand members of various “temperance” organizations. As the first contingent of liquor men came up, they were set upon by the “temperance” men, and their banner was torn to pieces. The same thing was done with the next, and some personal violence was done. When the liquor men began to address the meeting their voices were drowned by the hoots and jeers of the “temperance” party. Finally the liquor advocates were hustled from the pedestal of the monument, and the “temperance” party captured the meeting, conducting it to suit themselves. One of the most prominent ministers in London, in referring to the event, said that it showed that the power of the publican, even in London, had gone. If there were so, it would be small cause for rejoicing, under the circumstances, for the worst defeat that temperance could sustain is a victory gained by mob violence and brute force. Those who make profession of temperance should know that there are various forms of intemperance. Drinking liquor is by no means the only form. From the instruction of God’s word we know that there was no element of temperance in Trafalgar Square on the 8th inst. Temperance is the outgrowth of faith, and is associated with patience, godliness, brotherly kindness, and charity. See 2 Peter 1:5-9.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 128.8

    The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster has just returned from Rome, where he has been made Cardinal. On Easter Sunday he performed his first public service after his return, celebrating high mass at the pre-Cathedral, Kensington. Following is a portion of the report of the service:-PTUK April 20, 1893, page 128.9

    “It was a little after eleven o’clock when a procession, headed by a cross-bearer, and including the local clergy and attending acolytes, emerged from the sacristy, and went to the main entrance to receive the Cardinal-Archbishop. His Eminence was accompanied by Monsignor Canon Johnson, his secretary, who wore the purple in right of his newly-conferred dignity. Cardinal Vaughan wore the scarlet biretta and a scarlet soutane, over which was thrown the snow-white pallium; and as he walked up the aisle under a white satin canopy, held by four distinguished Catholics of Kensington, the entire congregation rose to their feet, and the choir and organ gave with splendid effect Santley’s ‘Ecce Sacerdos Magnus’ (Behold the Great Priest). The Cardinal was conducted to a throne on the Gospel side of the altar. Dr. Weathers (the veteran Bishop of Amycia), sung the high mass, assisted by the local clergy; and as soon as the Gospel of the day (Mark 16:1-7) was sung, the Cardinal wearing a heavily-jewelled mitre, and holding the crosier in his left hand, advanced to the front of the chancel close to the sanctuary, and preached the sermon of the day.”PTUK April 20, 1893, page 128.10

    The sermon was mostly in praise of the Pope, whose special blessing he had been charged to impart to the people. The Cardinal said that the Pope had authorised him to say that he “watched over them, cared for them, and would pray for them.” We make no comment on all this, but leave the reader to decide whether it is Christianity or Paganism.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 128.11

    The Eastern Star (Madras) of February 20, contained a notification from the Collector and Magistrate of the District of Madura (South India), which needs no comment other than the statement that the “Christian” Government has a monopoly of the sale of the liquor referred to, and presumably derives a handsome revenue therefrom:-PTUK April 20, 1893, page 128.12

    “It having been brought to the notice of the undersigned that the arrack vend monopoly renters do not keep a sufficient stock of liquor to meet the public demand, the Collector under clause 14 of Abkarri Notice No. 1, enjoins on the arrack renters that they should maintain an adequate supply in their depots and shops. The failure on the part of the renters to conform to this condition will in future be visited with fine, etc.PTUK April 20, 1893, page 128.13

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