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    THE reader will now understand why so much space has been given to a consideration of the earthly sanctuary and its history. It is because Paul, in plain and explicit language, declares that that building erected by Moses at the command of God, and which was perpetuated in the temples built by Solomon, Zerubbabel, and Herod, was the sanctuary of the first covenant; and it was important to see how prominent a place that held in the former dispensation. The word “sanctuary” occurs in the Old Testament one hundred and forty times, and in almost every instance refers to this building. It was no insignificant object, it was no trifle in the divine economy of that age. It is everywhere held before us as the sanctuary, the holy place, the sacred place, the dwelling place of the Most High among the children of men. And Paul presents the complement to all these declarations when he declares so clearly that this was the sanctuary of the first covenant.LUJ 108.1

    We desire the reader to appreciate the full value which this statement possesses in this investigation. From this there is no appeal. Here all believers in the Bible must occupy common ground. Here, for the space of fifteen hundred years, all are brought together on this subject. From Moses to Christ, this object, and no other, was the sanctuary of the Bible. And the history of this sanctuary has been traced down to 70 A.D., when it disappeared, and there has since been nothing of the kind on the earth. The following questions are therefore now pertinent: Has there been no sanctuary anywhere since that time? Has something else taken the place of that sanctuary? If this latter be the fact, what is it that has taken its place? when and why did it take its place? and where is it located?LUJ 108.2

    The covenant to which the earthly sanctuary pertained, has given place to the new covenant. Jeremiah 31:31; Hebrews 8:10-12. Under the new covenant we are now living; for Christ ratified it by his death upon the cross. “Where a testament [covenant] is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator,” or covenant maker. Hebrews 9:16. Christ said to his disciples as he passed them the cup at the last supper, “This is my blood of the new testament [covenant, diatheke ], which is shed for many for the remission of sins.” Matthew 26:28. The two covenants are plainly set forth in the Bible, as so related to each other, that in outward features they must be counterparts of each other. There must be found, therefore, in the new covenant, features answering to the leading characteristics of the old covenant. The sanctuary of the old covenant must consequently finds its counterpart in a sanctuary belonging to the new covenant. And the Bible nowhere recognizes anything as the sanctuary of God, except the sanctuary, or sanctuaries, connected with these two covenants. The new covenant therefore has a sanctuary, as well as the old.LUJ 109.1

    This is proved directly by the words of Paul in the text in question (Hebrews 9:1): “Then verily the first covenant had also ordinances of divine service, and a worldly sanctuary.” Paul is showing the relation which the two covenants sustain to each other; and the word, also, shows that those things which he mentions pertained to both.LUJ 109.2

    One had ordinances of divine service; the other also had them. One has a sanctuary; the other also had a sanctuary. That Hebrews 9:1 refers to the old covenant there can be no just ground to question, though it has strangely been called in question, because the word “convenant,” in our English version, is a supplied word. But a brief examination of Hebrews 8 from verse 6 to the end of the chapter, is sufficient to demonstrate that verse 1 of chapter 9, refers to the old covenant. Thus (chapter 8:6): “But now hath he obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much also he is the mediator of a better covenant, which was established upon better promises.” Here the word “covenant” is expressed, and no conflicting questions can arise concerning it. Verse 7: “For if that first [covenant] had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second.” Here the word “covenant” is a supplied word, as in chapter 9:1; but can there be any possible doubt that the old covenant is referred to? - None at all. In verses 8-12 the apostle quotes the promise of the new covenant made by the Lord through Jeremiah, over six hundred years before, contrasting the new with the old, then in force, and showing the superiority of the new covenant over the old. Then in verse 13 he continues: “In that he saith, A new [covenant], he hath made the first old. Now that which decayeth and waxeth old is ready to vanish away.” Here the word “covenant” is again a supplied word. But can there be any possible doubt that it is the new covenant of which he has just been speaking that is referred to? and that the adjective “first,” immediately following, refers to the old covenant? - None whatever. Now, passing the man-made division of chapters, to verse 1 of chapter 9, the apostle keeps right on in his line of thought: “Then verily the first [covenant] had also ordinances of divine service, and a worldly sanctuary.” Here the word “covenant” is again supplied; but can there be any doubt that the reference is to the old covenant? - Certainly no more question than there is that the word “first” in chapter 8:7 refers to the old covenant, and the word “new” in chapter 8:13 refers to the new covenant. The covenants are here the apostle’s subject and he designates and distinguishes them by these adjectives. The word “first” in chapter 8:13 confessedly refers to the old covenant. Now is it possible that the same word in the verse following (chapter 9:1), used in the same manner on the same subject, refers, not to the covenant but to something entirely different, without the least intimation or ground for inference that there has been any change of subject? - It is utterly impossible; and such a claim is not only a daring breach of logic, but a denial of direct testimony.LUJ 110.1

    This point settled, that Paul in Hebrews 9:1 refers to the first covenant, the way is wonderfully cleared and simplified for an application of the testimony of the Scriptures relative to the change from the old dispensation to the new; without this, all is thrown into confusion. For the sanctuary of the old covenant must bear the same relation to the sanctuary of the new covenant, that the old covenant itself bears to the new. And on this point it is not presumed that there is any difference of opinion. All must concur in the proposition that they stand as type and antitype. The ordinances of the old covenant were types; the provisions of the new covenant are their antitypes. Paul plainly expresses this fact when he says in Hebrews 10:1: “For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices, which they offered year by year continually, make the comers thereunto perfect.”LUJ 111.1

    Here the law, the Mosaic economy, with its ordinances of divine services, its yearly sacrifices, is called a shadow of good things to come; and what these “good things” are, the same apostle tells us in Hebrews 9:11; “But Christ being come a high priest of good things to come,” etc. Those things, therefore, in relation to which Christ acts as high priest, are the substance of which the Mosaic ordinances were the shadows. The sanctuary of the Mosaic dispensation was the shadow; the sanctuary of this dispensation, the substance. That was the type; this the antitype. But the sanctuary of that dispensation was the tabernacle built by Moses. Of what, then, was the tabernacle of Moses a type, a figure, or shadow?LUJ 112.1

    The answer to this question is intimated in various scriptures to which the special attention of the reader is now respectfully asked. To Moses the Lord said: “Let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them. According to all that I show thee, after the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make it.” Exodus 25:8, 9. “And look that thou make them after their pattern, which was showed thee in the mount.” Verse 40. “And thou shalt rear up the tabernacle according to the fashion thereof which was showed thee in the mount.” Exodus 26:30. “As it was showed thee in the mount, so shall they make it.” Exodus 27:8. “Our Fathers had the tabernacle of witness in the wilderness, as He had appointed, speaking unto Moses, that he should make it according to the fashion that he had seen.” Acts 7:44. “While as the first tabernacle was yet standing; which was a figure for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices.” Hebrews 9:8, 9. “For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true.” Verse 24.LUJ 112.2

    These texts afford no material for any argumentation. They call for no course of reasoning from which to draw conclusions. They make a plain, positive assertion, which, if their testimony is believed, must be admitted. They declare that the tabernacle built by Moses, the sanctuary of the first covenant, was not an original structure; it was made after a pattern; it was simply a model or figure of something else, given for the time being to his people; and that from which it was modeled or fashioned is declared to be the true sanctuary; and this true sanctuary must be the sanctuary of the new covenant; for God recognizes in connection with his work only these two: the true, and the figure or model which was made from it. The figure was the tabernacle of Moses. What is the true?LUJ 113.1

    At this particular point theologians seem to have fallen into a most marvelous state of bewilderment and confusion. To this question, What is the true sanctuary from which the earthly Hebrew sanctuary was modeled? one replies, “It is the earth.” “It is heaven,” says another. “It takes both earth and heaven,” answers a third. “It is the land of Palestine,” exclaims a fourth. A fifth replies, “It is the church;” a sixth, “the human body;” a seventh, “the human heart;” an eighth, “the person of our Lord.” An on this a chorus seem to be united, assuming to find in the person of Christ the antitype of the sanctuary itself, of all its parts, all its furniture, and all its instruments of service. And herein is found a lively display of that spirit of conjecture and fancy, which, according to quotations already presented, is so much to be deprecated.LUJ 113.2

    In the midst of these clashing voices, would it not be well to let an apostle speak, and to listen to his words? Fortunately the great apostle to the Gentiles (to whom the work of this dispensation specially pertains) uses language which cannot be misunderstood. Hear him: “Now of the things which we have spoken, this is the sum: We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens; a minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man.” Hebrews 8:1, 2.LUJ 113.3

    In the seven preceding chapters of Hebrews, Paul has introduced the priesthood of Christ. He has compared it with that of Aaron in the light of prophecy. He shows the superiority of Christ’s priesthood over that of Aaron. Christ is a priest forever after the order of Melchisedec.LUJ 114.1

    After plainly showing that a priest was to be provided like Melchisedec, he sums up his argument in the foregoing quotation from the opening of the eighth chapter. “We have such an high priest.” Who is he? - “Christ.” Where is he? - “In heaven.” In what place does he minister? - In the “true sanctuary,” not in the figure or model which existed here upon the earth. Who pitched this true tabernacle, or erected this sanctuary? - “Not man,” as Moses erected the earthly sanctuary, but “the Lord.” Where is this true sanctuary? - In heaven, of course, where the High Priest is. Could not Christ be a priest upon earth? - No; for provision was made in the Aaronic priesthood for all the work of that king which was to be performed upon the earth; and they served, says Paul, “unto the example and shadow of heavenly things.” Hebrews 8:4, 5.LUJ 114.2

    These statements call for most careful and candid study. The two dispensations are here set in juxtaposition before us; the relation they sustain to each other is clearly shown, together with the work that pertains to each, the place where it is carried forward, and the agents by whom it is performed. In the following epitome, let No. 1 represent the former dispensation, and No. 2, the present.LUJ 114.3

    No. 1. Priesthood performed by Aaron and his sons. Exodus 28:1.LUJ 115.1

    No. 2. Priesthood performed by Christ, a priest forever, after the order of Melchisedec. Hebrews 7:12-15.LUJ 115.2

    No. 1. Priesthood performed here upon the earth. Hebrews 8:4.LUJ 115.3

    No. 2. Priesthood performed in heaven. Hebrews 8:1, 2; 9:11, 12.LUJ 115.4

    No. 1. Performed in an earthly sanctuary, pitched by man. - Id.LUJ 115.5

    No. 2. Performed in a heavenly sanctuary, which the Lord pitched, and not man. - Id.LUJ 115.6

    No. 1. The shadow. Hebrews 10:1.LUJ 115.7

    No. 2. The substance.LUJ 115.8

    No. 1. The type.LUJ 115.9

    No. 2. The antitype.LUJ 115.10

    Where is now our Priest? - In heaven. Where is now our sanctuary? - In heaven. Is the sanctuary in heaven a literal sanctuary? - Just as literal as the Priest, our Lord Jesus Christ, who ministers therein.LUJ 115.11

    It must certainly be apparent to all that the great original from which Moses copied when he made the sanctuary for his time, is brought to view in these scriptures. The sanctuary of the Mosaic dispensation, was simply copied from the sanctuary of this dispensation. The priesthood of that dispensation was copied from the priesthood of this dispensation. That dispensation and all its services owed their existence entirely to this dispensation. That was given in reference to this. It was designed simply to introduce this. It is the present dispensation which is the all-important object in the whole arrangement. That in due time came to an end; and this took its place. The work on earth ceased; and the work in heaven commenced. Men have now neither priest nor sanctuary on the earth; but they have both a Priest and a sanctuary in heaven. Thank God that so momentous a truth, freighted with consequences of such infinite interest to us all, is so clearly revealed.LUJ 115.12

    All these particulars are clearly and explicitly stated by Paul, and no believer in his inspiration can for a moment question his testimony. This should be an end of all controversy on this point.LUJ 116.1

    This sanctuary in heaven is called by David, Habakkuk, and John, “the temple of God in heaven” (Psalm 11:4; Habakkuk 2:20; Revelation 11:19; 16:17); by Zechariah and Jeremiah, God’s “holy habitation” (Zechariah 2:13; Jeremiah 25:30); by Paul, a “greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands: (Hebrews 9:11), “the true” (verse 24), “things in the heavens” (verse 23), and the “holy places” (Greek, plural, verses 8, 12, and chapter 10:19).LUJ 116.2

    But someone may say, This sounds very well as an argument, yet there may possibly be some error in the premises or conclusions. But if any one had only been to heaven and seen this sanctuary there, we could then believe that there is a sanctuary there which is the sanctuary of this dispensation. Will you take the testimony of such an one? You shall have it. John was taken to heaven in vision, and shown things therein; and he has plainly told us of some of the things which he there saw. He saw a temple there, which he calls the temple of God; and it was the sanctuary; for it had furniture that belonged only to the sanctuary. Revelation 11:19. He saw “seven lamps of fire burning before the throne.” Revelation 4:5. Here is seen the antitype of the golden candlestick of the earthly sanctuary with its seven branches. He saw PICTURE AND TEXT
    an altar of incense, golden censer, and “much incense,” all of which pertained exclusively to the sanctuary. Revelation 8:3. “And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament.” Revelation 11:19. What was the ark? - An instrument of the sanctuary, and nothing else; to be seen in the most holy place, and nowhere else.
    LUJ 116.3

    Thus John beheld the sanctuary in heaven, and has given us a description of it, and the essential pieces of its furniture. And what more need we? Moses says he made the sanctuary after a “pattern” which was shown to him; Paul says plainly that that pattern was the “true sanctuary,” and that it is now “in heaven,” and John completes the evidence by saying that he saw it there. How could testimony be more comprehensive or complete? What other kind of evidence is there which it would be possible to present? It would be superfluous to ask any one who accepts the Bible as the word of God, if he believes these statements of prophets and apostles on this subject. He certainly must believe them so long as he professes confidence in the Holy Scriptures.LUJ 117.1

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