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    In commenting on the position of certain authors on the relations of the death of Christ, it was remarked that pardon, during probation, is not absolute, but relative. It is conditional, as the Scriptures clearly show. God never disregards the claims of his law—of justice. In forgiving the sinner so that he escapes the penalty he has deserved, God does not overlook the crime, or treat it as a matter to be lightly passed over. But he transfers the sin to another who bears it in his stead, and suffers for him. The sin was counted as still existing—an offense against Heaven’s King. This is further shown by the action of the priest on the day of atonement. His service did not end with cleansing the sanctuary, or in blotting out the sins of the people from the book of judgment. The sin still existed, though they were cleansed; and it was removed from the presence of God to another object.AERS 232.1

    Two goats were presented before the Lord, and lots were cast upon them; one to be a sin offering, to be slain, the blood of which was sprinkled in the sanctuary; the other for a scape-goat, which was not slain, and concerning which the priest took no action till after the Atonement was made. Let not the reader mistake the import of this expression. We do not say that the priest took no action with the scape-goat until after the sin offering was slain. The statement reaches far beyond that; he took no action concerning the scape-goat until after he had taken the blood of the sin offering into the sanctuary and exercised his priestly office there in blotting out the sins of the people. If this distinction be well considered it may prepare the mind to see the truth concerning the object and antitype of the scape-goat. It has been supposed that this goat was also a type of Christ; but that is a supposition for which the Scriptures give not the least warrant.AERS 232.2

    Some authors consider that, as the sin offering typified the crucified Saviour, so the scape-goat presented alive before the Lord typified the Lord as risen for the justification of his people. But this view is inadmissible from the order of the service. We notice that,AERS 233.1

    1. The goat was slain as a sin offering; this typified the death of Christ on Calvary.AERS 233.2

    2. The priest took the blood and went into the sanctuary for the people; this typified the risen Saviour going into “Heaven itself, by his own blood, to appear in the presence of God for us.”AERS 233.3

    3. After he had made an end of reconciling the holies, that is, after the atonement was fully made in the sanctuary, then the priest brought the live goat and laid both his hands upon the head of the goat, and confessed over him the sins of the children of Israel, putting them upon the head of the goat. This must certainly typify something in the future to be performed after the sanctuary in Heaven is cleansed. But the sins placed on the scape-goat can be of those only who have “afflicted their souls,” and are accepted of God, for they who are impenitent and continue to transgress the law of God, bear their own sins—their sins are on their own heads. And when the sins of God’s people have been transferred through the priest to the sanctuary of God, and from thence removed to the head of the scapegoat, the goat is then sent away to “a land not inhabited,” and there “let go,” or caused to remain. And by this it is clearly seen that the pardon of sin is relative; that the sin is removed from the penitent believer only by transfer; but such transfer does not destroy or put out of existence the sin, as a future action in reference to it is appointed by the Lord.AERS 233.4

    There is something analogous to this in the New Testament, and it accords with the meaning of Leviticus 16:8, as given by reputable authorities. The Hebrew word for scape-goat as given in the margin of Leviticus 16:8, is Azazel. On this verse, Jenks in his Comprehensive Commentary remarks, “‘Scape-goat.’ See different opinions in Bochart. Spencer, after the oldest opinions of the Hebrews and Christians, thinks Azazel is the name of the devil; and so Rosenmuller, whom see. The Syriac has Azzail, the angel (strong one) who revolted.” The devil is evidently here pointed out. Thus we have the definition of the Scripture term in two ancient languages, with the oldest opinion of the Christians in favor of the view that the scape-goat is a type of Satan.AERS 234.1

    Charles Beecher in his work, “Redeemer and Redeemed,” makes an argument that the name Azazel refers to Satan, from which we extract as follows:—AERS 234.2

    “The use of the preposition implies it. The same preposition is used on both lots, La-Yehovah, La Azazel; and if the one indicates a person, it seems natural the other should, especially considering the act of casting lots. If one is Jehovah, the other would seem for some other person or being; not one for Jehovah, and the other for the goat itself.AERS 235.1

    “What goes to confirm this is, that the most ancient paraphrases and translations treat Azazel as a proper name. The Chaldee paraphrase and the targums of Onkelos and Jonathan would certainly have translated it if it was not a proper name, but they did not. The Septuagint, or oldest Greek version, renders it by (alpha)(pi)(omicron)(pi)(omicron)(mu)(pi)(alpha)(iota)(omicron)(sigma) [apopompaios], a word applied by the Greeks to a malign deity, sometimes appeased by sacrifices.AERS 235.2

    “Another confirmation is found in the book of Enoch, where the name Azalzel, evidently a corruption of Azazel, is given to one of the fallen angels, thus plainly showing what was the prevalent understanding of the Jews at that day.AERS 235.3

    “Still another evidence is found in the Arabic, where Azazel is employed as the name of the evil spirit.AERS 235.4

    “In addition to these, we have the evidence of the Jewish work Zohar, and of the Cabalistic and Rabbinical writers. They tell us that the following proverb was current among the Jews: ‘On the day of atonement, a gift to Sammail.’ Hence Moses Gerundinensis feels called to say that it is not a sacrifice, but only done because commanded by God.AERS 235.5

    “Another step in the evidence is when we find this same opinion passing from the Jewish to the early Christian Church. Origen was the most learned of the Fathers, and on such a point as this, the meaning of a Hebrew word, his testimony is reliable. Says Origin: ‘He who is called in the Septuagint (alpha)(pi)(omicron)(pi)(omicron)(mu)(pi)(alpha)(iota)(omicron)(sigma), and in the Hebrew Azazel, is no other than the devil.’AERS 236.1

    “Lastly, a circumstance is mentioned of the emperor Julian, the apostate, that confirms the argument. He brought as an objection against the Bible, that Moses commanded a sacrifice to the evil spirit. An objection he never could have thought of, had not Azazel been generally regarded as a proper name.AERS 236.2

    “In view, then, of the difficulties attending any other meaning, and the accumulated evidence in favor of this, Hengstenberg affirms, with great confidence, that Azazel cannot be anything else but another name for Satan.” Pp. 67, 68.AERS 236.3

    Also on the opinion that the scape-goat typified the Saviour after his resurrection, Mr. Beecher has the following:—AERS 236.4

    “Matthew Henry says: ‘The slain goat was a type of Christ dying for our sins, the scape-goat a type of Christ rising again for our resurrection.’ But he forgets that the goat was so unclean that its touch rendered the man by whom it was sent, unclean, and necessitated a thorough washing. Was Christ unclean in his resurrection? It is said, 1 Timothy 3:16, that he was ‘justified in the Spirit;’ and Romans 4:25, ‘He was delivered for our offenses, but raised for our justification.’AERS 236.5

    Purity is the grand idea associated with Christ’s resurrection, and therefore such a view of the type is manifestly impossible.”AERS 237.1

    Irenaeus, writing in A. D. 185, quotes an elder’s words against Marcus, who was accused of heresy, as follows:—AERS 237.2

    “Marcus, thou former of idols, inspector of portents, skilled in consulting the stars, and deep in the black arts of magic. Ever by tricks such as these confirming the doctrines of error. Furnishing signs unto those involved by thee in deception, wonders of power that is utterly severed from God, and apostate, which Satan, thy true father, enables thee still to accomplish, by means of Azazel, that fallen, yet mighty angel. Thus making thee precursor of his own impious actions.”—Irenaeus against Heresies, Book 1, chap 15, p. 68.AERS 237.3

    This shows that such an opinion was held by Christians at that time.AERS 237.4

    In the common acceptation of the word, the term scape-goat is applied to any miserable vagabond who has become obnoxious to the claims of justice; and while it is revolting to all our conception of the character and glory of Christ, to apply this term to him, it must strike every one as a very appropriate designation of the devil, who is styled in the Scriptures, the accuser, adversary, angel of the bottomless pit, Beelzebub, Belial, dragon, enemy, evil spirit, father of lies, murderer, prince of devils, serpent, tempter, etc.AERS 237.5

    In Revelation 20, there is something that bears a striking analogy to the action of the High Priest in regard to the scape-goat, and is, doubtless, a fulfillment of that type. This scripture, ushering in the first resurrection—the resurrection of the just, who are raised at the coming of Christ,—certainly refers to a period beyond human probation, and therefore after the sanctuary is cleansed. An angel is seen to come down from Heaven, and bind the dragon, which is the devil, and cast him into the bottomless pit, where he is shut up a thousand years. By reference to the Scripture use of this term abyss (rendered bottomless pit), we find the very idea of Leviticus 16:21, 22 carried out, for it is literally a desert waste, void, or land not inhabited. In every place where the term is used in such a manner as to determine a locality, it is connected with the earth, or a part of the earth. In Revelation 9, at the sounding of the fifth trumpet, the abyss was opened, and locusts came out, etc. This describes the action of the Mahometan power. In chap 11, the beast that ascends out of the abyss is said to make war against the two witnesses and to kill them. By careful expositors of prophecy this is referred to the French Revolution. In chap. 17, the seven-headed and ten-horned beast is said to ascend out of the abyss. Chap. 13:1-10 refers to the same beast in another phase of its existence, and these chapters clearly point out European powers. Thus far we find it confined to the earth. Paul, in Romans 10:7, uses this term in the same manner. “Who shall descend into the deep? (that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead).” The abyss, here rendered deep, in other places rendered bottomless pit, refers to the grave, or, at most, to the state of death. In Genesis 1:2, “and darkness was upon the face of the deep,” the abyss points out a void, waste, or uninhabitable state of the earth; and in no case, where it is possible to trace its connection, has it any other location but the earth.AERS 237.6

    Two facts only need notice to show the perfect fulfillment of the types in the scripture under consideration. (1) Satan is called the prince of the power of the air. By his creation as an exalted angel he has the power of traversing the air as well as the earth. To deprive him of that power and confine him to the earth would fulfill Revelation 20. (2) When Satan is bound, at the coming of Christ, the earth will be desolated, and left without an inhabitant. As a very brief summary of the proof on this point, the following facts and scriptures are offered:—AERS 239.1

    At the coming of Christ the saints will ascend to meet the Lord in the air, and be taken to those mansions which he has gone to prepare for them. “For the Lord himself shall descend from Heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God; and the dead in Christ shall rise first; then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air; and so shall we ever be with the Lord.” 1 Thessalonians 4:16, 17. “Little children, yet a little while I am with you. Ye shall seek me; and as I said unto the Jews, Whither I go ye cannot come; so now I say to you.” “Simon Peter said unto him, Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered him, Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now, but thou shalt follow me afterward.” “Let not your heart be troubled; ye believe in God, believe also in me. In my Father’s house are many mansions; if it were not so I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also.” John 13:33, 36; 14:1-3. Compare Revelation 4:6, and 15:2.AERS 239.2

    The wicked will all be destroyed from the face of the earth at that time. “Seeing it is a righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you; and to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ; who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power.” 2 Thessalonians 1:6-9. Most decisive proof to the same point is given in Revelation 19:11-21. The King of kings, and Lord of lords, who in righteousness judges and makes war, appears to smite the nations and to tread the wine-press of the wrath of God. An angel calls to the fowls of heaven to come to the supper which the great God has prepared for them; “that ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great.” The armies of earth are then gathered against the Conqueror, and the beast and the false prophet, and their worshipers are slain. “And the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the horse, which sword proceeded out of his mouth.”AERS 240.1

    And so Paul speaks of “that wicked” at the coming of Christ: “Whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming.” 2 Thessalonians 2:8. God, whose voice once shook the earth, when he spoke his law on Sinai, will speak again with a voice which will shake both earth and heaven. Hebrews 12:25, 26. And we learn that “a great voice out of the temple of Heaven, from the throne,” will be heard when the last plague is poured out, as Jesus says, “Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth.” Revelation 16:12-21.AERS 241.1

    Jeremiah describes the drinking by the nations of the wine-cup of God’s fury, which “all the kings of the north, far and near, one with another, and all the kingdoms of the world, which are upon the face of the earth,” shall drink; and they shall all “fall, and rise no more,” because of the sword which the Lord shall send among them. The Lord has a controversy with the nations, he will plead with all flesh. “And the slain of the Lord shall be at that day from one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth; they shall not be lamented, neither gathered, nor buried; they shall be dung upon the ground.” Jeremiah 25:15 to the end of the chapter.AERS 241.2

    Note on these texts: Paul says the voice of the Lord will be heard but once from Heaven. John says this is just before Christ come as a thief. Joel says it is in the day of the great battle, and the treading of the wine-press of the wrath of God. See also Revelation 14:14-20. Jeremiah says all the nations shall drink of the wine cup of God’s fury, and “all the wicked” be given to the sword. Now when the righteous are taken away from the earth, and all the wicked slain, the earth will be left empty, and without inhabitants. Therefore the following scriptures refer to that time. Jeremiah 4:19-29. Verse 23 says the earth was without form and void; in the same chaotic state in which it was when first created, before the Spirit of God, in formative power, moved upon the face of the deep—the abyss. “Behold, the Lord maketh the earth empty, and maketh it waste, and turneth it upside down, and scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof.” Isaiah 24:1; the entire chapter is on this subject.AERS 242.1

    “I will utterly consume all things from off the land, saith the Lord...The great day of the Lord is near, it is near, and hasteth greatly, even the voice of the day of the Lord; the mighty man shall cry there bitterly. That day is a day of wrath, a day of trouble and distress, a day of wasteness and desolation.... Neither their silver nor their gold shall be able to deliver them in the day of the Lord’s wrath; but the whole land shall be devoured by the fire of his jealousy; for he shall make even a speedy riddance of all them that dwell in the land.” Zephaniah 1:2, 14-18.AERS 242.2

    Thus the Scriptures clearly prove that the earth is yet to be desolated, without an inhabitant, broken down, without form and void, even as it was when first created, before man was made to dwell upon it. In this condition it was called “the deep,” “the abyss,” which in our version is rendered “bottomless pit.” He who has been “the prince of the power of the air,” will be confined thereon during the thousand years, Revelation 20:4, to behold the desolation which his rebellion has caused. And thus the antitype of the scape-goat will be sent away, with the sins of God’s true Israel upon his head, “to a land not inhabited.” Leviticus 16:22. Of all that God has revealed by his holy prophets, nothing else fulfills, to the letter, the type of the scape-goat upon whom the high priest placed the sins of Israel after the atonement was fully made,—when he came out from the presence of God to pronounce the benediction of Heaven upon his waiting people.AERS 243.1

    Some have been troubled over Leviticus 16:10, where the scape-goat is reserved also “to make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a scape-goat into the wilderness.” While, in general, the definition of the original is, to cover, expiate, or forgive, Gesenius gives as one definition, “to do away, or obliterate.” Now we have constantly insisted that the forgiveness of sin was relative; not absolute, as most writers on the atonement affirm. Forgiveness in probation, in our being justified by faith, has reference to the decisions of the future Judgment. And in the final remission, in the atonement, sin is not so “blotted out,” as to be counted as no more existing. Sin is a terrible stain upon the fair universe of God. It is not a matter to be passed over lightly. When it is fully forgiven to the penitent ones, and altogether removed from God’s people, it still has an existence, and falls somewhere else; in the type, on the scape-goat; in the antitype, on the devil. And when he is destroyed, sin perishes with him, it is, in his extinction, literally “done away, or obliterated.” But he has nothing to do with the Atonement. As soon as the sins of Israel are removed from the most holy—the place of judgment—the work is finished for the people, judgment being rendered in their favor; and the priest no longer represents them as a people in danger of condemnation; no longer bears sin as their sin, but only to place it on the head of its originator. Practically, as far as the people of God are concerned, it would not make a particle of difference whether laid on Satan, or disposed of some other way; they are secure when the blood on the mercy-seat has procured release for them, as they are acquitted at the throne of judgment.AERS 243.2

    Though the conclusion seems unavoidable that Satan is the antitype of the scape-goat, in whose person sin is finally destroyed or obliterated, we cannot yield to the assertion that Satan thereby takes part in the work of atonement for man, or bears sin in the sense of suffering the penalty of our transgressions. It has been affirmed (page 40), and we think correctly, that a voluntary substitute is necessary to meet the demands of justice. This position our Saviour occupied; but neither Scripture nor reason lead us to suppose that Satan will ever consent to die for us, or for our sins; he is never spoken of as a ransom; never said to die for us; never represented as a means of redemption. And, as quoted by Mr. Beecher, the scape-goat was not considered as a sacrifice. Whatever may be ultimately done with our sins under the appointment of God; whatever may be done with or to Satan in the closing up of the great rebellion against the throne of Heaven; the bearing of our sins, and dying for us, and meeting in his own person the demands of the violated law for our sakes, is clearly and distinctly set forth in the divine word as the work of Jesus Christ, the Son of God; and in this work he stands alone—no one shares it with him to any extent whatever. And to him shall be the glory, and honor, and praise forever. But what is the part that Satan performs? Simply that of receiving upon himself the infinite weight of sins which he has instigated, and being sent away under their intolerable load.AERS 244.1

    And here we would ask, What could be more fitting than that the author and instigator of all sin should receive the guilt of those transgressions which he has incited mortals to commit, but of which they have repented, back upon his own head? And what could be a more striking antitype of the ancient ceremony of sending away the scape-goat into the wilderness, than the act of the mighty angel in binding Satan and casting him into the bottomless pit at the commencement of the thousand years?AERS 245.1

    This is a point of transcendent interest to every believer. Then the sins of God’s people will be borne away to be remembered no more forever. Then he who instigated them, will have received them back again. Then the serpent’s head will have been bruised by the seed of the woman. Then the “strong man armed” (Satan) will have been bound by a stronger than he (Christ), and the house of the strong man (the grave) spoiled of its goods, the saints. Matthew 12:29; Hebrews 2:14. Then will the work of the enemy in sowing tares among the wheat (Matthew 13:24-45), be forever remedied, and the tares will have been gathered into bundles to burn, and the wheat gathered into the garner. Then our great High Priest will have come forth from the sanctuary to pronounce the everlasting blessing upon his waiting people. Then shall we have come unto Mount Zion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels. Then will the redeemed, placing the foot of triumph upon the world, the flesh, and the devil, raise their glad voices in the song of Moses and the Lamb. Oh, glorious day! May the Lord hasten it in his good time. Who would not, in view of this, take up the petition of the beloved John, “Even so, come Lord Jesus!”AERS 246.1

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