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    THE TWO COVENANTS

    Webster gives the following definitions of covenant: “1. A mutual consent or agreement of two or more persons, to do or to forbear some act of thing: a contract, stipulation. 2. A writing containing the terms of agreement or contract between parties.”BSA 25.5

    It is used in both senses in 2 Kings 23:3: “The king made a covenant, to perform the words of the covenant, written in the book found in the house of the Lord.”BSA 25.6

    In the scriptures speaking of the “two covenants,” both these senses are included, either expressed or understood.BSA 25.7

    1. Sinaitic. - 1. The agreement made on conditions. Exodus 19:5-8; 24:3, 7; Deuteronomy 26:16-19.BSA 26.1

    2. Written condition of this agreement. Exodus 20:1-17; Deuteronomy 4:12, 13; Exodus 24:12; 31:18; 32:15, 16; 34:28.BSA 26.2

    3. It had a mediator, or mediators. Galatians 3:19; Exodus 20:19, 21, 22; Deuteronomy 5:5, 23-27; Leviticus 10:17; 16:15, 16, 30.BSA 26.3

    4. Obedience to its conditions would have secured the same blessings that are now granted in the gospel. Comp. Exodus 19:5, 6, with 1 Peter 2:5, 9; Leviticus 18:5; 20:22, 23, 26; Deuteronomy 5:29; 7:6-9; 14:2; 28:9; Comp. chap. 26:18, 19, with Titus 2:14; Deuteronomy 30:15-20; Psalm 19:7, 11; 132:12; Jeremiah 7:22, 23; 11:3-5; Ezekiel 20:11, 12, 19, 20; Ecclesiastes 12:13, 14.BSA 26.4

    5. Its sole condition was obedience; therefore it did not embrace forgiveness of sins. Exodus 19:5; Hebrews 7:18, 19; 9:9; 10:1-4.BSA 26.5

    6. It was typical of the New Covenant. Luke 24:44; Colossians 2:17; Hebrews 8:1-5; 9:9, 23, 24; 10:1.BSA 26.6

    II. New Covenant. - 1. Its object is a perfect agreement between God and man. Isaiah 53:6; John 3:16, 17; 14:6, 16, 20, 23; 17:22-26; Romans 5:1, 10; 2 Corinthians 5:18-20; Galatians 3:26; Ephesians 2:13-18; 1 Peter 3:18; 1 John 1:3.BSA 26.7

    2. This object is accomplished by (1) The remission of sin. Isaiah 53:10-12; Jeremiah 31:31-34; Daniel 9:24, 26; Malachi 4:2; Matthew 20:28; Luke 5:24; 17:4; 24:46, 47; Acts 2:38; 3:19; 5:31; 10:43; 13:38, 39; 22:16; Romans 1:16; 3:25, 26; 1 Corinthians 15:3; Ephesians 5:25-27. Hebrews 2:17; 7:27; 8:12; 9:14, 15, 22-28; 2 Peter 1:4, 9; 1 John 1:7, 9; 2:1; Revelation 7:14. (2) By bringing sinners back to obedience. Psalm 89:30-32; Isaiah 55:6, 7; Ezekiel 18:31, 32; Daniel 9:24; Matthew 1:21; 5:17-20; 7:21-23;19:17; 21:43; Luke 10:25-28; John 7:17; 8:11; Acts 3:25, 26; 5:29-32; Romans 5:19; 6:1, 2, 4, 6, 12-16, 18; 7:22-25; 8:4; 10:20, 21; Galatians 5:24; Ephesians 2:12, 13, 16; 2 Timothy 3:15-17; Titus 2:14; Hebrews 9:11-14; James 1:22, 25; 2:8-12; 4:12; 1 John 1:5-7; 2:1-6; 3:4, 8; 5:2, 3.BSA 26.8

    3. Its basis or condition is the law of God. Jeremiah 31:33; John 6:38; Romans 2:12, 16; 3:31; Galatians 3:13, 14; Hebrews 8:10.BSA 27.1

    4. Execution of judgment or of the penalty of the law belongs to this arrangement as well as to its type. Psalm 9:17; Ecclesiastes 12:14; Isaiah 24:6, 17-22; 63:1-6; 66:15, 16; 59:17, 18. Jeremiah 25:29-38; Daniel 7:11; Joel 3:12-16; Zephaniah 1:14-18; Matthew 16:27; 24:30; Luke 17:29, 30; John 5:22, 27; Acts 10:42; 17:31; Romans 6:23; 12:19; 2 Thessalonians 1:7-9; Hebrews 10:27; 1 Peter 4:17; 2 Peter 2:1-3; Jude 14, 15; Revelation 1:7; 6:14-17; 11:18; 4:9-11; 9; 19:9-21; 20:9, 11-15.BSA 27.2

    By the above scriptures it will be seen that the “better promises” of the New Covenant are, the placing the law of God in the heart, instead of on stone, and the forgiveness of sin, [by remission and surety of future obedience], which the Old did not contain, because its ministers had no blood to offer which could remove sin. The points of identity show that if it had not been broken, or being broken, if their sins could have been remitted under it, there would have been no need of another, as the object of the New would have been fully accomplished by that.BSA 27.3

    Some suppose that the covenant that passed away was the Ten Commandments. A contract, or mutual agreement, is made void by the failure of either party to fulfill its obligations: the children of Israel did not obey as they promised, and the covenant ceased of necessity. But a law is never invalidated or annulled by being transgressed. The transgressor, by transgression, changes his position or relation to the government of which the law is the basis, but the law is not changed or weakened by his action.BSA 28.1

    It is under the New Covenant that Hebrews 8:10-12, has its fulfillment, which shows that it extends into the redeemed state. S O U L.BSA 28.2

    The word soul in the Old Testament, is translated principally from the Hebrew word neh-phesh, which occurs 745 times, and is translated soul about 473 times. The following are the passages where it first occurs. Neh-Phesh.BSA 28.3

    Soul. - Man became a living soul. Genesis 2:7; 12:5, 13; 17:14; 19:20; 27:4, 19, 25, 31; 34:3, 8; 35:18; 42:21; 46:15, 18, 22, 25, 26(twice);49:6; Exodus 1:5(twice); 12:4, 15, 19; 30:12, 15, 16; 31:14; Leviticus 4:2; 5:1, 2, 4, 15, 17; 6:2; 7:18, 20(twice), 21,(twice) 25, 27(twice); 16:29, 31; 17:10, 11. (twice) 12, 15; 18:29; 19:8; 20:6(twice), 25; 22:3, 6, 11; 23:27, 29, 30(twice), 32, 26:11, 15, 30; Numbers 9:13; 11:6; 15:27, 28, 30(twice), 31; 16:38; 19:18, 20, 22,etc.BSA 28.4

    Life. - And God said let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life. [margin, soul.] Genesis 1:20, 30(twice) 19:17, 19; 32:30; 44:30(twice); Exodus 4:19; 21:23(twice), 30; Leviticus 17:11, 14(thrice); Numbers 35:31; Deuteronomy 12:23,(twice); 19:21(twice); 24:6; Joshua 2:13, 14; 9:24; Judges 5:18, etc., in all 118 times.BSA 29.1

    Person. - And the king of Sodom said unto Abraham, Give me the persons [margin, souls.] and take the goods to thyself. Genesis 14:21; 35:6; Leviticus 27:2; Numbers 5:6; 19:18; 31:19, 35, 40(twice), 46; 35:11, 15, 30(twice); Deuteronomy 10:22; Joshua 20:3, 9; 1 Samuel 22:22; 2 Samuel 14:14; Proverbs 28:17; Jeremiah 43:6; 52:25, 29(twice); Ezekiel 16:5; 17:17; 27:13; 33:6-29 times.BSA 29.2

    Mind. - If it should be your mind that I should bury my dead out of my sight. Genesis 23:8; Deuteronomy 18:6; 1 Samuel 2:35; 2 Samuel 17:8; 2 Kings 9:15; 1 Chronicles 28:9; Jeremiah 15:1; 22:27 [Margin]; Ezekiel 23:9; Jeremiah 15:1; 22:27 [Margin]; Ezekiel 23:17, 18[twice], 22, 28; 24:25; 36:5-14 times.BSA 29.3

    Heart. - Ye know the heart [soul, Margin] of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land of Egypt. Exodus 23:9; Leviticus 26:16; Deuteronomy 24:15; 1 Samuel 2:33; 2 Samuel 3:21; Psalm 10:3; Proverbs 23:7; 28:25; 31:6; Lamentations 3:51; Ezekiel 25:6, 15; 27:31; Hosea 4:8-15 times.BSA 29.4

    Body, [or dead body.] - He shall come at no dead body, [lit. dead soul.] Numbers 6:6; Leviticus 19:28; 21:1, 11; 22:4; Numbers 5:2; 9:6, 7, 10; 19:13; Haggai 2:13. - 10 times.BSA 30.1

    Will. - Deliver me not over to the will of my enemies. Psalm 27:12; Deuteronomy 21:14; Psalm 41:2; Ezekiel 16:27. - 4 times.BSA 30.2

    Appetite. - And put a knife to thy throat if thou be a man given to appetite. Proverbs 23:2; Ecclesiastes 6:7. - twice.BSA 30.3

    Lust. - And they tempted God in their heart by asking meat for their lust. Psalm 78:18; Exodus 15:9.- twice.BSA 30.4

    Thing. - All that move in the waters and of any living thing.BSA 30.5

    [lit., living soul,] which is in the waters. Leviticus 11:10; Ezekiel 47:9.- twice.BSA 30.6

    It is translated 43 different ways. Besides the above, it is rendered by the various pronouns, and breath, beast, fish creature, ghost, pleasure, desire etc. Neh-Phesh is never rendered spirit.BSA 30.7

    Soul in Job 30:15, “They pursue my soul [margin my principal one,] as the wind,” is from the Hebrew word n’dee-vah, which does not occur elsewhere in the Bible. Spirit.BSA 30.8

    Spirit is translated from two Hebrew words, n’shah-mah and roo-agh. The following will give an idea of their use. N’Shah-Mah.BSA 30.9

    This word occurs in the Old Testament 24 times, and is translated in five different ways, viz:BSA 30.10

    Breath. - And he breathed into is nostrils the breath of life. Genesis 2:7; 7:22; Deuteronomy 20:16; Joshua 10:40; 11:11, 14; 1 Kings 15:29; 17:17; Job 27:3; 33:4; 34:14; 37:10; Psalm 150:6; Isaiah 2:22; 30:33; 42:5; Daniel 10:17.BSA 31.1

    Blast.- The foundations of the world were discovered at the rebuking of the Lord, at the blast of the breath of his nostrils. 2 Samuel 22:16; Job 4:9; Psalm 18:15.BSA 31.2

    Spirit. - To whom hast thou uttered words? and whose spirit came from thee? Job 26:4; Proverbs 20:27.BSA 31.3

    Soul. - The spirit should fail before me, and the souls which I have made. Isaiah 57:16.BSA 31.4

    Inspiration. - There is a spirit in man, and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding. Job 32:8. ROO-AGH.BSA 31.5

    Occurs in the Old Testament 442 times, and is translated 16 different ways, as follows:BSA 31.6

    Spirit - And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. Genesis 1:2; 6:3; 41:8, 38; Exodus 6:9; 28:3; 31:3; 35:21, 31; Numbers 5:14 [twice], 30; 11:17, 25 [twice], 26, 29; 14:24; 16:22; 24:2, 27:16, 18; Deuteronomy 2:30; 34:9; Joshua 5:1; Judges 3:10; 6:34; 9:23; 11:29; 13:25; 14:6, 19; 15:14, 19; 1 Samuel 1:15; 10:6, 10; 11:6; 16:13; Ecclesiastes 1:14, 17;2:11, 17, 26; 3:21[twice] 4:4, 6, 16; 6:9; 7:8, [twice] 9; 7:8 [twice],9; 8:8 [twice]; 10:4; 11:5; 12:7; Isaiah 4:4[twice]; 11:2, [4 times] 19:3, 14, etc. - in all, 282 times.BSA 31.7

    Wind. - And God made a wind to pass over the earth and the waters assuaged. Genesis 8:1; Exodus 10:13(twice), 19; 14:21; 15:10; Numbers 11:31; 2 Samuel 22:11; 1 Kings 18:45; 19:11;(thrice); 2 Kings 3:17; Job 1:19; 6:26; 7:7; 2, etc; Ecclesiastes 1:6(twice); 5:16; 11:4; Isaiah 7:2; 11:15; 17:13, etc.; in all 97 times. It is also rendered cool, Genesis 3:8; quarters, 1 Chronicles 9:24; side, Jeremiah 52:23; Ezekiel 42:16, 17, 18, 19, 20; and vain, Job 16:3; Literally, wind in each case.BSA 32.1

    Breath. - And behold I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life from under heaven; and everything that is in the earth shall die. Genesis 6:17; 7:15, 22; 2 Samuel 22:16; Job 4:9; 9:18; 12:10; 15:30; 17:1; 19:17; Psalm 18:15; 33:6; 104:29; 135:17; 146:4; Ecclesiastes 3:19; Isaiah 11:4; 30:28; 33:11; Jeremiah 10:14; 51:17; Lamentations 4:20; Ezekiel 37:5, 6, 8, 9, 10; Habakkuk 2:19-28 times.BSA 32.2

    Smell. - Whosoever shall make like unto that, to smell thereto, shall even be cut off from his people. Exodus 30:38; Genesis 8:21; 27:27; Leviticus 26:31; Deuteronomy 4:28; Job 39:25; Psalm 115:6; Amos 5:21;-8 times. Also toucheth, Judges 16:9; understanding, Isaiah 11:3; accept, 1 Samuel 26:19; margin of each, smell.BSA 32.3

    Mind. - Which were a grief of mind unto Isaac and to Rebekah. Genesis 26:35; Proverbs 29:11; Ezekiel 11:5; 20:32; Daniel 5:20; Habakkuk 1:11; -6 times.BSA 32.4

    Blast. - And with the blast of thy nostrils, the waters were gathered together. Exodus 15:8; 2 Kings 19:7; Isaiah 25:4; 37:7; - 4 times.BSA 33.1

    Tempest. - Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, fire and brimstone, and an horrible tempest; this shall be the portion of their cup. Psalm 11:6.BSA 33.2

    Anger. - Then their anger was abated toward him, when he had said that. Judges 8:3.BSA 33.3

    Courage. - And as soon as we had heard these things, our hearts did melt, neither did there remain any more courage in any man. Joshua 2:11.BSA 33.4

    Air. - One is so near to another that no air can come between them. Job 41:10.BSA 33.5

    The references on the word Soul and Spirit are compiled from the Hebrew Concordance, and is probably the most reliable list that has ever been published in this form. Our space will not allow us to insert every instance of their occurrence, but as neh-phesh is never rendered spirit, and every instance is given where roo-agh is translated by any other word, by examining the texts under the various words the original in any other text may be determined.BSA 33.6

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