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    Page 33. Titles. Pope Innocent III declared that the Roman pontiff is “the vicegerent upon earth, not of a mere man, but of very God.” See Decretals of the Lord Pope Gregory IX, liber 1, title 7, ch. 3. Corp. Jur. Canon. (2d Leipzig ed., 1881), col. 99.HF 412.1

    For the title “Lord God the Pope” see a gloss on the Extravagantes of Pope John XXII, title 14, ch. 4, Declaramus. In an Antwerp edition of the Extravagantes, dated 1584, the words “Dominum Deum nostrum Papam” (“Our Lord God the Pope”) occur in column 153.HF 412.2

    Page 33. Infallibility. See Philip Schaff, The Creeds of Christendom, vol. II, Dogmatic Decrees of the Vatican Council, pp. 234-271; The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. VII, art. “Infallibility”; James Cardinal Gibbons, The Faith of Our Fathers (Baltimore: John Murphy Co., 110th ed., 1917), chs. 7, 11.HF 412.3

    Page 33. Image Worship. “The worship of images ... was one of those corruptions of Christianity which crept into the church stealthily and almost without notice or observation. ... So gradually was one practice after another introduced in connection with it, that the church had become deeply steeped in practical idolatry, ... almost without any decided remonstrance; and when at length an endeavor was made to root it out, the evil was found too deeply fixed to admit of removal.”—J. Mendham, The Seventh General Council, the Second of Nicaea, Introduction, pages iii-vi.HF 412.4

    For a record of the proceedings and decisions of the Second Council of Nicea, A.D. 787, called to establish the worship of images, see A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, second series, vol. XIV, pp. 521-587 (New York, 1900); C. J. Hefele, A History of the Councils of the Church, From the Original Documents, bk. 18, ch. 1, secs. 332, 333; ch. 2, secs. 345-352 (T. and T. Clark, ed. 1896), vol. 5, pp. 260-304, 342-372.HF 412.5

    Page 34. The Sunday Law of Constantine. The law is given in Latin and in English translation in Philip Schaff's History of the Christian Church, vol. III, 3d period, ch. 7, sec. 75, p. 380, footnote 1. See discussion in Albert Henry Newman, A Manual of Church History (Philadelphia: The American Baptist Publication Society, 1933), rev. ed., vol. I, pp. 305-307; and in L. E. Froom, The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Assn., 1950), vol. I, pp. 376-381.HF 413.1

    Page 35. Prophetic Dates. An important principle of interpreting time prophecies is the year-day principle—under which a day of prophetic time equals a year of calendar time. Some of the Bible reasons for this principle are as follows: (1) The year-day principle is in harmony with the principle of symbolically interpreting beasts as kingdoms, horns as powers, oceans as peoples, etc. (2) The Lord, speaking in Numbers 14:34 and Ezekiel 4:6, upholds the principle. (3) The 2300 days (years) of Daniel 8:14 cover the history of the Medo-Persian, Grecian, and Roman empires, as the angel explains in verses 19-26 (“at the time of the end shall be the vision”). These empires lasted many times longer than 2300 literal days. Nothing can fit except the year-day principle. (4) Daniel 11 is an expansion of the prophecy of Daniel 8, yet Daniel 11 is not symbolic. Three times it speaks of “years” (verses 6, 8, 13) as a parallel of “days” in Daniel 8:14. (6) The angel explained to Daniel that these prophecies concerned “the time of the end” (8:19, 26; 10:13, 14). If the “days” were literal, the prophecies would not make sense. (7) A day for a year was a common way of speaking in Old Testament Hebrew. See Leviticus 25:8; Genesis 29:27. (8) The book of Revelation unlocks the prophecies of Daniel, showing that their fulfillment was still future in the time of the apostles. Further, the year-day principle has been recognized and accepted as a valid biblical principle by many careful Bible students such as Joachim of Floris, Wycliffe, Joseph Mede, Sir Isaac Newton, Bishop Thomas Newton, Alexander Keith and many others.HF 413.2

    Page 37 (See also page 352). FORGED WRITINGS. Among the documents generally admitted to be forgeries, the Donation of Constantine and the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals are of primary importance. See The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, vol. III, art. “Donation of Constantine.”HF 414.1

    The “false writings” referred to in the text include also the “Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals”—fictitious letters ascribed to early popes from Clement (A.D. 100) to Gregory the Great (A.D. 600) and later incorporated in a ninth century collection purporting to have been made by “Isidore Mercator.” The falsity of the Pseudo-Isidorian fabrications is now admittedHF 414.2

    Page 38. Purgatory. Dr. Joseph Faa Di Bruno thus defines purgatory: “Purgatory is a state of suffering after this life, in which those souls are for a time detained, who depart this life after their deadly sins have been remitted as to the stain and guilt, and as to the everlasting pain that was due to them; but who have on account of those sins still some debt of temporal punishment to pay; as also those souls which leave this world guilty only of venial sins.”—Catholic Belief, p. 196(ed. 1884; imprimatur Archbishop of New York).HF 414.3

    See The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. XII, art. “Purgatory.”HF 414.4

    Page 39. Indulgences. For a detailed history of the doctrine of indulgences, see The Catholic Encyclopedia, art. “Indulgences,” vol. VII; A. H. Newman, A Manual of Church History (Philadelphia: The American Baptist Publication Society, 1953), vol. II, pp. 53, 54, 62.HF 414.5

    Page 44. The Sabbath Among the Waldenses. Historical evidence exists for some observance of the seventh-day Sabbath among the Waldenses. A report of an inquisition before whom were brought some Waldenses of Moravia in the middle of the fifteenth century declares that among the Waldenses “not a few indeed celebrate the Sabbath with the Jews.”—Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger, Beitrage zur Sektengeschichte des Mittelalters (Contributions to the History of the Sects of the Middle Ages), Munich, 1890, part 2, p. 661. This source indicates the observance of the seventh-day Sabbath.HF 414.6

    Page 49. Edict Against the Waldenses. A portion of the papal bull (Innocent VIII, 1487) against the Waldenses is given in an English translation, in Dowling's History of Romanism, bk. 6, ch. 5, sec. 62 (ed. 1871).HF 415.1

    Page 53. Indulgences. See note for page 39.HF 415.2

    Page 54, 60. Wycliffe. For the original text of the papal bulls issued against Wycliffe with English translation, see John Foxe, Acts and Monuments of the Church (London: Pratt Townsend, 1870), vol. III, pp. 4-13; Merle d'Aubigne, The History of the Reformation in the Sixteenth Century (London: Blackie and Son, 1885), vol. IV, div. 7, p. 93; Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church (New York: Chas. Scribner's Sons, 1915), vol. V, part 2, p. 317.HF 415.3

    Page 54. Infallibility. See note for page 33.HF 415.4

    Page 64. Indulgences. See note for page 39.HF 415.5

    Page 64. Council of Constance. Recent publications on the Council are K. Zähringer, Das Kardinal Kollegium auf dem Konstanzer Konzil (Münster, 1935); Th. F. Grogau, The Conciliar Theory as It Manifested Itself at the Council of Constance (Washington, 1949); Fred A. Kremple, Cultural Aspects of the Councils of Constance and Basel (Ann Arbor, 1955).HF 415.6

    See John Hus, Letters, 1904; E. J. Kitts, Pope John XXIII and Master John Hus (London, 1910); D. A. Schaff, John Hus (1915); and Matthew Spinka, John Hus and the Czech Reform (1941).HF 415.7

    Page 81. Indulgences. See note for page 39.HF 415.8

    Page 146. Jesuitism. See Concerning Jesuits, edited by the Rev. John Gerard, S.J. (London: Catholic Truth Society, 1902). In this work it is said that “the mainspring of the whole organization of the Society is a spirit of entire obedience: ‘Let each one,’ writes St. Ignatius, ‘persuade himself that those who live under obedience ought to allow themselves to be moved and directed by divine Providence through their superiors, just as though they were a dead body, which allows itself to be carried anywhere and to be treated in any manner whatever, or as an old man's staff, which serves him who holds it in his hand in whatsoever way he will.’”—p. 6.HF 415.9

    Page 147. The Inquisition. See The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. VIII, art. “Inquisition”; and E. Vacandard, The Inquisition: A Critical and Historical Study of the Coercive Power of the Church (New York: Longmans, Green, and Company, 1908).HF 416.1

    For the non-Catholic view, see Philip van Limborch, History of the Inquisition; Henry C. Lea, A History of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages, 3 vols.HF 416.2

    Page 166. Causes of the French Revolution. See H. von Sybel, History of the French Revolution, bk. 5, ch. 1, pars. 3-7; H. T. Buckle, History of Civilization in England, chs. 8, 12, 14 (New York, ed. 1895), vol. I, pp. 364-366, 369-371, 437, 540, 541, 550; Blackwood's Magazine, vol. XXXIV, no. 215 (November, 1833), p. 739; J. G. Lorimer, An Historical Sketch of the Protestant Church in France, ch. 8, pars. 6, 7.HF 416.3

    Page 167. Prophetic Dates. See note for page 35.HF 416.4

    Page 167. Efforts to Suppress and Destroy the Bible. The Council of Toulouse ruled: “We prohibit laymen possessing copies of the Old and New Testament. ... We forbid them most severely to have the above books in the popular vernacular.” “The dwellings, the humblest hovels, and even the underground retreats of the men convicted of having the Scriptures shall be entirely wiped out. These men shall be hunted for in the woods and caverns and any who shall give them shelter shall be severely punished.”—Concil. Tolosanum, Pope Gregory IX, Anno chr. 1229. Canons 14, 2. This council sat at the time of the crusade against the Albigenses.HF 416.5

    “This pest [the Bible] had taken such an extension that some people had appointed priests of their own, and even some evangelists who distorted and destroyed the truth of the gospel and made new gospels for their own purpose ... [they know that] the preaching and explanation of the Bible is absolutely forbidden to the lay members.”—Acts of Inquisition, Philip van Limborch, History of the Inquisition, ch. 8.HF 416.6

    At the Council of Constance in 1415, Wycliffe was posthumously condemned as “that pestilent wretch of damnable heresy who invented a new translation of the Scriptures in his mother tongue.”HF 417.1

    Opposition to the Bible by the Roman Catholic Church increased because of the success of the Bible societies. On December 8, 1866, Pope Pius IX, in his encyclical Quanta cura, issued a syllabus of eighty errors under ten different headings. Under heading IV we find listed: “Socialism, communism, clandestine societies, Bible societies. ... Pests of this sort must be destroyed by all possible means.”HF 417.2

    In recent years a dramatic and positive change has occurred in the Roman Catholic Church. On the one hand, the church has approved several versions prepared on the basis of the original language; on the other, it has promoted the study of the Holy Scriptures by means of free distribution and Bible institutes. The church, however, continues to reserve for herself the exclusive right to interpret the Bible in the light of her own tradition, thus justifying those doctrines that do not harmonize with biblical teachings.HF 417.3

    Page 173. The Reign of Terror. For a reliable introduction to the history of the French Revolution, see L. Gershoy, The French Revolution (1932); G. Lefebvre, The Coming of the French Revolution (Princeton, 1947); and H. von Sybel, History of the French Revolution, 4 vols. (1869).HF 417.4

    See also A. Aulard, Christianity and the French Revolution (London, 1927), in which the account is carried through 1802—an excellent study.HF 417.5

    Page 175. The Masses and the Privileged Classes. See H. von Hoist, Lowell Lectures on the French Revolution, lecture 1; also Taine, Ancient Regime; and A. Young, Travels in France.HF 417.6

    Page 177. Retribution. See Thos. H. Gill, The Papal Drama, bk. 10; E. de Pressense, The Church and the French Revolution, bk. 3, ch. 1.HF 417.7

    Page 177. The Atrocities of the Reign of Terror. See M. A. Thiers, History of the French Revolution (New York, ed. 1890, tr. by F. Shoberl), vol. 3, pp. 42-44, 62-74, 106; F. A. Mignet, History of the French Revolution (Bohn, ed. 1894), ch. 9, par. 1; Sir Archibald Alison, History of Europe, From the Commencement of the French Revolution to the Restoration of the Bourbons, vol. I, ch. 14 (New York, ed. 1872), vol. 1, pp. 293-312.HF 418.1

    Page 179. The Circulation of the Scriptures. In 1804, according to Mr. William Canton, of the British and Foreign Bible Society, “all the Bibles extant in the world, in manuscript or in print, counting every version in every land, were computed at not many more than four millions.”HF 418.2

    From 1816-1981, the American Bible Society alone published 98,200,951 copies of the whole Bible and 3,396,127,592 copies of portions of the Bible. In 1981 3,365,779 copies of the whole Bible were published by the ABS. Other Bible societies would add many millions more copies to these figures.HF 418.3

    Page 179. Foreign Missions. The missionary activity of the early Christian church had virtually died out by the year 1000, and was succeeded by the military campaigns of the Crusades. The Reformation era saw little foreign mission work. The pietistic revival produced some missionaries. The work of the Moravian Church in the eighteenth century was remarkable, and there were some missionary societies formed by the British for work in colonized North America. But the great resurgence of foreign missionary activity began around the year 1800, at “the time of the end” (Dan. 12:4). In 1792 the Baptist Missionary Society sent Carey to India. In 1795 the London Missionary Society was organized, and another society in 1799, which in 1812 became the Church Missionary Society. Shortly afterward the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society was founded. In the United States, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was formed in 1812, and Adoniram Judson was sent out that year to Calcutta. He established himself in Burma the next year. In 1814 the American Baptist Missionary Union was formed. The Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions was formed in 1837.HF 418.4

    “In A.D. 1800 ... the overwhelming majority of Christians were the descendants of those who had been won before A.D. 1500. ... Now, in the nineteenth century, came a further expansion of Christianity. ... Never in any corresponding length of time had the Christian impulse given rise to so many new movements. Never had it had quite so great an effect upon Western European peoples. It was from this abounding vigor that there issued the missionary enterprise which during the nineteenth century so augmented the numerical strength and the influence of Christianity.”—Kenneth Scott Latourette, A History of the Expansion of Christianity, vol. IV, The Great Century, A.D. 1800-A.D. 1914 (New York: Harper and Bros., 1914), pp. 2-4.HF 418.5

    Page 203. A Day for a Year. See note for page 35.HF 419.1

    Page 205. The Year 457 B.C. For the certainty of the date 457 B.C. being the seventh year of Artaxerxes, see S. H. Horn and L. H. Wood, The Chronology of Ezra 7 (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1953); E. G. Kraeling, The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri (New Haven or London, 1953), pp. 191-193; The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association. 1954), vol. III, pp. 97-110.HF 419.2

    Page 209. Fall of the Ottoman Empire. Throughout the Reformation era Turkey was a continual threat to European Christendom; the writings of the Reformers are full of condemnation of the Ottoman power. Christian writers since have been concerned with the role of Turkey in future events, and commentators on prophecy have seen Turkish power and its decline forecast in Scripture.HF 419.3

    For the “hour, day, month, year” prophecy, as part of the sixth trumpet, Josiah Litch worked out an application of the time prophecy, ending Turkish independence in August 1840.HF 419.4

    A book by Uriah Smith, Thoughts on Daniel and the Revelation, rev. ed. of 1944, discusses the prophetic timing of this prophecy on pp. 506-517.HF 419.5

    Page 232. Ascension Robes. The story that the Adventists made robes with which to ascend “to meet the Lord in the air” was invented by those who wished to reproach the advent preaching. Careful inquiry has proven its falsity.HF 419.6

    For a refutation of the legend of ascension robes, see Francis D. Nichol, The Midnight Cry (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1944), chs. 25-27, and Appendices H-J. See also LeRoy E. Froom, The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1954), vol. IV, pp. 822-826.HF 420.1

    Page 269. A Threefold Message. Rev. 14:6, 7 foretells the proclamation of the first angel's message. Then the prophet continues: “There followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, ... and the third angel followed them.” The word here rendered “followed” means “to go along with,” “to follow one,” “go with him.” It also means “to accompany.” The idea intended is that of “going together,” “in company with.” The idea in Rev. 14:8, 9 is not simply that the second and third angels followed the first in point of time, but that they went with him. They are three only in the order of their rise. But having risen, they go on together.HF 420.2

    Page 352. Supremacy of the Bishops of Rome. See James Cardinal Gibbons, Faith of Our Fathers (Baltimore: John Murphy Co., 110th ed., 1917), chs. 5, 9, 10, 12.HF 420.3

    Page 352. The Sabbath Among the Waldenses. See note for page 44.HF 420.4

    Page 353. The Ethiopian Church and the Sabbath. Until rather recent years the Coptic Church of Ethiopia observed the seventh-day Sabbath. The Ethiopians also kept Sunday. The observance of the seventh-day Sabbath has, however, virtually ceased in modern Ethiopia. For eyewitness accounts of religious days in Ethiopia, see Pero Gomes de Teixeira, The Discovery of Abyssinia by the Portuguese in 1520 (translated into English in London: British Museum, 1938), p. 79; Father Francisco Alvarez, Narrative of the Portuguese Embassy to Abyssinia During the Years 1520-1527, in the Records of the Hakluyt Society (London, 1881), vol. LXIV, pp. 22-49.HF 420.5

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