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    Lud — Lystra


    Lud — (1.) The fourth son of Shem (Genesis 10:22; 1 Chronicles 1:17), ancestor of the Lydians probably.ETI Lud.2

    (2.) One of the Hamitic tribes descended from Mizraim (Genesis 10:13), a people of Africa (Ezekiel 27:10; Ezekiel 30:5), on the west of Egypt. The people called Lud were noted archers (Isaiah 66:19; comp. Jeremiah 46:9).ETI Lud.3


    Ludim — probably the same as Lud (2) (comp. Genesis 10:13; 1 Chronicles 1:11). They are associated (Jeremiah 46:9) with African nations as mercenaries of the king of Egypt.ETI Ludim.2


    Luhith — made of boards, a Moabitish place between Zoar and Horonaim (Isaiah 15:5; Jeremiah 48:5).ETI Luhith.2


    Luke — the evangelist, was a Gentile. The date and circumstances of his conversion are unknown. According to his own statement (Luke 1:2), he was not an “eye-witness and minister of the word from the beginning.” It is probable that he was a physician in Troas, and was there converted by Paul, to whom he attached himself. He accompanied him to Philippi, but did not there share his imprisonment, nor did he accompany him further after his release in his missionary journey at this time (Acts 17:1). On Paul’s third visit to Philippi (Acts 20:5, Acts 20:6) we again meet with Luke, who probably had spent all the intervening time in that city, a period of seven or eight years. From this time Luke was Paul’s constant companion during his journey to Jerusalem (Acts 20:6-21:18). He again disappears from view during Paul’s imprisonment at Jerusalem and Caesarea, and only reappears when Paul sets out for Rome (Acts 27:1), whither he accompanies him (Acts 28:2, Acts 28:12-16), and where he remains with him till the close of his first imprisonment (Philemon 24; Colossians 4:14). The last notice of the “beloved physician” is in 2 Timothy 4:11.ETI Luke.2

    There are many passages in Paul’s epistles, as well as in the writings of Luke, which show the extent and accuracy of his medical knowledge.ETI Luke.3

    Luke, Gospel according to

    Luke, Gospel according to — was written by Luke. He does not claim to have been an eye-witness of our Lord’s ministry, but to have gone to the best sources of information within his reach, and to have written an orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1-4). The authors of the first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each other. Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.ETI Luke, Gospel according to.2

    Each writer has some things, both in matter and style, peculiar to himself, yet all the three have much in common. Luke’s Gospel has been called “the Gospel of the nations, full of mercy and hope, assured to the world by the love of a suffering Saviour;” “the Gospel of the saintly life;” “the Gospel for the Greeks; the Gospel of the future; the Gospel of progressive Christianity, of the universality and gratuitousness of the gospel; the historic Gospel; the Gospel of Jesus as the good Physician and the Saviour of mankind;” the “Gospel of the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man;” “the Gospel of womanhood;” “the Gospel of the outcast, of the Samaritan, the publican, the harlot, and the prodigal;” “the Gospel of tolerance.” The main characteristic of this Gospel, as Farrar (Cambridge Bible, Luke, Introd.) remarks, is fitly expressed in the motto, “Who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil” (Acts 10:38; comp. Luke 4:18). Luke wrote for the “Hellenic world.” This Gospel is indeed “rich and precious.”ETI Luke, Gospel according to.3

    “Out of a total of 1151 verses, Luke has 389 in common with Matthew and Mark, 176 in common with Matthew alone, 41 in common with Mark alone, leaving 544 peculiar to himself. In many instances all three use identical language.” (See MATTHEW ; MARK; GOSPELS.)ETI Luke, Gospel according to.4

    There are seventeen of our Lord’s parables peculiar to this Gospel. (See List of Parables in Appendix.) Luke also records seven of our Lord’s miracles which are omitted by Matthew and Mark. The synoptical Gospels are related to each other after the following scheme. If the contents of each Gospel be represented by 100, then when compared this result is obtained:ETI Luke, Gospel according to.5

    Mark has 7 peculiarities, 93 coincidences. Matthew 42 peculiarities, 58 coincidences. Luke 59 peculiarities, 41 coincidences.ETI Luke, Gospel according to.6

    That is, thirteen-fourteenths of Mark, four-sevenths of Matthew, and two-fifths of Luke are taken up in describing the same things in very similar language.ETI Luke, Gospel according to.7

    Luke’s style is more finished and classical than that of Matthew and Mark. There is less in it of the Hebrew idiom. He uses a few Latin words (Luke 12:6; Luke 7:41; Luke 8:30; Luke 11:33; Luke 19:20), but no Syriac or Hebrew words except sikera, an exciting drink of the nature of wine, but not made of grapes (from Heb. shakar, “he is intoxicated”, Leviticus 10:9), probably palm wine.ETI Luke, Gospel according to.8

    This Gospel contains twenty-eight distinct references to the Old Testament.ETI Luke, Gospel according to.9

    The date of its composition is uncertain. It must have been written before the Acts, the date of the composition of which is generally fixed at about 63 or 64 This Gospel was written, therefore, probably about 60 or 63, when Luke may have been at Caesarea in attendance on Paul, who was then a prisoner. Others have conjectured that it was written at Rome during Paul’s imprisonment there. But on this point no positive certainty can be attained.ETI Luke, Gospel according to.10

    It is commonly supposed that Luke wrote under the direction, if not at the dictation of Paul. Many words and phrases are common to both; e.g., compare:ETI Luke, Gospel according to.11

    Luke 4:22; with Colossians 4:6. Luke 4:32; with 1 Corinthians 2:4. Luke 6:36; with 2 Corinthians 1:3. Luke 6:39; with Romans 2:19. Luke 9:56; with 2 Corinthians 10:8. Luke 10:8; with 1 Corinthians 10:27. Luke 11:41; with Titus 1:15. Luke 18:1; with 2 Thessalonians 1:11. Luke 21:36; with Ephesians 6:18. Luke 22:19, Luke 22:20; with 1 Corinthians 11:23-29. Luke 24:46; with Acts 17:3. Luke 24:34; with 1 Corinthians 15:5.ETI Luke, Gospel according to.12


    Lunatic — probably the same as epileptic, the symptoms of which disease were supposed to be more aggravated as the moon increased. In Matthew 4:24 “lunatics” are distinguished from demoniacs. In Matthew 17:15 the name “lunatic” is applied to one who is declared to have been possessed. (See DAEMONIAC.)ETI Lunatic.2


    Lust — sinful longing; the inward sin which leads to the falling away from God (Romans 1:21). “Lust, the origin of sin, has its place in the heart, not of necessity, but because it is the centre of all moral forces and impulses and of spiritual activity.” In Mark 4:19 “lusts” are objects of desire.ETI Lust.2


    Luz — a nut-bearing tree, the almond. (1.) The ancient name of a royal Canaanitish city near the site of Bethel (Genesis 28:19; Genesis 35:6), on the border of Benjamin (Joshua 18:13). Here Jacob halted, and had a prophetic vision. (See BETHEL.)ETI Luz.2

    (2.) A place in the land of the Hittites, founded (Judges 1:26) by “a man who came forth out of the city of Luz.” It is identified with Luweiziyeh, 4 miles north-west of Banias.ETI Luz.3


    Lycaonia — an inland province of Asia Minor, on the west of Cappadocia and the south of Galatia. It was a Roman province, and its chief towns were Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. The “speech of Lycaonia” (Acts 14:11) was probably the ancient Assyrian language, or perhaps, as others think, a corrupt Greek intermingled with Syriac words. Paul preached in this region, and revisited it (Acts 16:1-6; Acts 18:23; Acts 19:1).ETI Lycaonia.2


    Lycia — a wolf, a province in the south-west of Asia Minor, opposite the island of Rhodes. It forms part of the region now called Tekeh. It was a province of the Roman empire when visited by Paul (Acts 21:1; Acts 27:5). Two of its towns are mentioned, Patara (Acts 21:1, Acts 21:2) and Myra (Acts 27:5).ETI Lycia.2


    Lydda — a town in the tribe of Ephraim, mentioned only in the New Testament (Acts 9:32, Acts 9:35, Acts 9:38) as the scene of Peter’s miracle in healing the paralytic AEneas. It lay about 9 miles east of Joppa, on the road from the sea-port to Jerusalem. In the Old Testament (1 Chronicles 8:12) it is called Lod. It was burned by the Romans, but was afterwards rebuilt, and was known by the name of Diospolis. Its modern name is Ludd. The so-called patron saint of England, St. George, is said to have been born here.ETI Lydda.2


    Lydia — (1.) Ezekiel 30:5 (Heb. Lud, a province in the west of Asia Minor, which derived its name from the fourth son of Shem (Genesis 10:22). It was bounded on the east by the greater Phrygia, and on the west by Ionia and the AEgean Sea.ETI Lydia.2

    (2.) A woman of Thyatira, a “seller of purple,” who dwelt in Philippi (Acts 16:14, Acts 16:15). She was not a Jewess but a proselyte. The Lord opened her heart as she heard the gospel from the lips of Paul (Acts 16:13). She thus became the first in Europe who embraced Christianity. She was a person apparently of considerable wealth, for she could afford to give a home to Paul and his companions. (See THYATIRA.)ETI Lydia.3


    Lysanias — tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1), on the eastern slope of Anti-Lebanon, near the city of Damascus.ETI Lysanias.2

    Lysias, Claudius

    Lysias, Claudius — the chief captain (chiliarch) who commanded the Roman troops in Jerusalem, and sent Paul under guard to the procurator Felix at Caesarea (Acts 21:31-38; Acts 22:24-30). His letter to his superior officer is an interesting specimen of Roman military correspondence (Acts 23:26-30). He obtained his Roman citizenship by purchase, and was therefore probably a Greek. (See CLAUDIUS.)ETI Lysias, Claudius.2


    Lystra — a town of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor, in a wild district and among a rude population. Here Paul preached the gospel after he had been driven by persecution from Iconium (Acts 14:2-7). Here also he healed a lame man (Acts 14:8), and thus so impressed the ignorant and superstitious people that they took him for Mercury, because he was the “chief speaker,” and his companion Barnabas for Jupiter, probably in consequence of his stately, venerable appearance; and were proceeding to offer sacrifices to them (Acts 14:13), when Paul earnestly addressed them and turned their attention to the true source of all blessings. But soon after, through the influence of the Jews from Antioch in Pisidia and Iconium, they stoned Paul and left him for dead (Acts 14:19). On recovering, Paul left for Derbe; but soon returned again, through Lystra, encouraging the disciples there to steadfastness. He in all likelihood visited this city again on his third missionary tour (Acts 18:23). Timothy, who was probably born here (2 Timothy 3:10, 2 Timothy 3:11), was no doubt one of those who were on this occasion witnesses of Paul’s persecution and his courage in Lystra.ETI Lystra.2

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