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    Matthias — Mikloth


    Matthias — gift of God. Acts 1:23.ETI Matthias.2


    Mattithiah — gift of Jehovah. (1.) One of the sons of Jeduthun (1 Chronicles 25:3, 1 Chronicles 25:21).ETI Mattithiah.2

    (2.) The eldest son of Shallum, of the family of Korah (1 Chronicles 9:31).ETI Mattithiah.3

    (3.) One who stood by Ezra while reading the law (Nehemiah 8:4).ETI Mattithiah.4

    (4.) The son of Amos, and father of Joseph, in the genealogy of our Lord (Luke 3:25).ETI Mattithiah.5


    Mattock — (1.) Heb. ma˒eder, an instrument for dressing or pruning a vineyard (Isaiah 7:25); a weeding-hoe.ETI Mattock.2

    (2.) Heb. mahareshah (1 Samuel 13:1), perhaps the ploughshare or coulter.ETI Mattock.3

    (3.) Heb. herebh, marg. of text (2 Chronicles 34:6). Authorized Version, “with their mattocks,” marg. “mauls.” The Revised Version renders “in their ruins,” marg. “with their axes.” The Hebrew text is probably corrupt.ETI Mattock.4


    Maul — an old name for a mallet, the rendering of the Hebrew mephits (Proverbs 25:18), properly a war-club.ETI Maul.2


    Mazzaroth — prognostications, found only Job 38:32, probably meaning “the twelve signs” (of the zodiac), as in the margin (comp. 2 Kings 23:5).ETI Mazzaroth.2


    Meadow — (1.) Heb. ha˒ahu (Genesis 41:2, Genesis 41:18), probably an Egyptain word transferred to the Hebrew; some kind of reed or water-plant. In the Revised Version it is rendered “reed-grass”, i.e., the sedge or rank grass by the river side.ETI Meadow.2

    (2.) Heb. ma˒areh (Judges 20:33), pl., “meadows of Gibeah” (R.V., after the LXX., “Maareh-geba”). Some have adopted the rendering “after Gibeah had been left open.” The Vulgate translates the word “from the west.”ETI Meadow.3


    Meah — an hundred, a tower in Jersalem on the east wall (Nehemiah 3:1) in the time of Nehemiah.ETI Meah.2


    Meals — are at the present day “eaten from a round table little higher than a stool, guests sitting cross-legged on mats or small carpets in a circle, and dipping their fingers into one large dish heaped with a mixture of boiled rice and other grain and meat. But in the time of our Lord, and perhaps even from the days of Amos (Amos 6:4, Amos 6:7), the foreign custom had been largely introduced of having broad couches, forming three sides of a small square, the guests reclining at ease on their elbows during meals, with their faces to the space within, up and down which servants passed offering various dishes, or in the absence of servants, helping themselves from dishes laid on a table set between the couches.” Geikie’s Life of Christ. (Comp. Luke 7:36-50.) (See ABRAHAM’S BOSOM; BANQUET; FEAST.)ETI Meals.2


    Mearah — a cave, a place in the northern boundary of Palestine (Joshua 13:4). This may be the cave of Jezzin in Lebanon, 10 miles east of Sidon, on the Damascus road; or probably, as others think, Mogheirizeh, north-east of Sidon.ETI Mearah.2


    Measure — Several words are so rendered in the Authorized Version. (1.) Those which are indefinite. (a) Hok, Isaiah 5:14, elsewhere “statute.” (b) Mad, Job 11:9; Jeremiah 13:25, elsewhere “garment.” (c) Middah, the word most frequently thus translated, Exodus 26:2, Exodus 26:8, etc. (d) Mesurah, Leviticus 19:35; 1 Chronicles 23:29. (e) Mishpat, Jeremiah 30:11, elsewhere “judgment.” (f) Mithkoneth and token, Ezekiel 45:11. (g) In New Testament metron, the usual Greek word thus rendered (Matthew 7:2; Matthew 23:32; Mark 4:24).ETI Measure.2

    (2.) Those which are definite. (a) ˒Eyphah, Deuteronomy 25:14, Deuteronomy 25:15, usually “ephah.” (b) Ammah, Jeremiah 51:13, usually “cubit.” (c) Kor, 1 Kings 4:22, elsewhere “cor;” Greek koros, Luke 16:7. (d) Seah, Genesis 18:6; 1 Samuel 25:18, a seah; Greek saton, Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:21. (e) Shalish, “a great measure,” Isaiah 40:12; literally a third, i.e., of an ephah. (f) In New Testament batos, Luke 16:6, the Hebrew “bath;” and choinix, Revelation 6:6, the choenix, equal in dry commodities to one-eighth of a modius.ETI Measure.3


    Meat-offering — (Heb. minhah, originally a gift of any kind. This Hebrew word came latterly to denote an “unbloody” sacrifice, as opposed to a “bloody” sacrifice. A “drink-offering” generally accompanied it. The law regarding it is given in Leviticus 2, and Leviticus 6:14-23. It was a recognition of the sovereignty of God and of his bounty in giving all earthly blessings (1 Chronicles 29:10-14; Deuteronomy 26:5-11). It was an offering which took for granted and was based on the offering for sin. It followed the sacrifice of blood. It was presented every day with the burnt-offering (Exodus 29:40, Exodus 29:41), and consisted of flour or of cakes prepared in a special way with oil and frankincense.ETI Meat-offering.2


    Mebunnai — construction, building of Jehovah, one of David’s bodyguard (2 Samuel 23:27; comp. 2 Samuel 21:18); called Sibbechai and Sibbecai (1 Chronicles 11:29; 1 Chronicles 27:11).ETI Mebunnai.2


    Medad — love, one of the elders nominated to assist Moses in the government of the people. He and Eldad “prophesied in the camp” (Numbers 11:24-29).ETI Medad.2


    Medan — contention, the third son of Abraham by Keturah (Genesis 25:2).ETI Medan.2


    Mede — (Heb. Madai, a Median or inhabitant of Media (Daniel 11:1). In Genesis 10:2 the Hebrew word occurs in the list of the sons of Japheth. But probably this is an ethnic and not a personal name, and denotes simply the Medes as descended from Japheth.ETI Mede.2


    Medeba — waters of quiet, an ancient Moabite town (Numbers 21:30). It was assigned to the tribe of Reuben (Joshua 13:16). Here was fought the great battle in which Joab defeated the Ammonites and their allies (1 Chronicles 19:7-15; comp. 2 Samuel 10:6-14). In the time of Isaiah (Isaiah 15:2) the Moabites regained possession of it from the Ammonites. (See HANUN.)ETI Medeba.2

    The ruins of this important city, now Madeba or Madiyabah, are seen about 8 miles south-west of Heshbon, and 14 east of the Dead Sea. Among these are the ruins of what must have been a large temple, and of three cisterns of considerable extent, which are now dry. These cisterns may have originated the name Medeba, “waters of quiet.” (See OMRI.)ETI Medeba.3


    Media — Heb. Madai, which is rendered in the Authorized Version (1) “Madai,” Genesis 10:2; (2) “Medes,” 2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 18:11; (3) “Media,” Esther 1:3; Esther 10:2; Isaiah 21:2; Daniel 8:20; (4) “Mede,” only in Daniel 11:1.ETI Media.2

    We first hear of this people in the Assyrian cuneiform records, under the name of Amada, about B.C. 840. They appear to have been a branch of the Aryans, who came from the east bank of the Indus, and were probably the predominant race for a while in the Mesopotamian valley. They consisted for three or four centuries of a number of tribes, each ruled by its own chief, who at length were brought under the Assyrian yoke (2 Kings 17:6). From this subjection they achieved deliverance, and formed themselves into an empire under Cyaxares (B.C. 633). This monarch entered into an alliance with the king of Babylon, and invaded Assyria, capturing and destroying the city of Nineveh (B.C. 625), thus putting an end to the Assyrian monarchy (Nahum 1:8; Nahum 2:5,Nahum 2:6; Nahum 3:13, Nahum 3:14).ETI Media.3

    Media now rose to a place of great power, vastly extending its boundaries. But it did not long exist as an independent kingdom. It rose with Cyaxares, its first king, and it passed away with him; for during the reign of his son and successor Astyages, the Persians waged war against the Medes and conquered them, the two nations being united under one monarch, Cyrus the Persian (B.C. 558).ETI Media.4

    The “cities of the Medes” are first mentioned in connection with the deportation of the Israelites on the destruction of Samaria (2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 18:11). Soon afterwards Isaiah (Isaiah 13:17; Isaiah 21:2) speaks of the part taken by the Medes in the destruction of Babylon (comp. Jeremiah 51:11, Jeremiah 51:28). Daniel gives an account of the reign of Darius the Mede, who was made viceroy by Cyrus (Daniel 6:1-28). The decree of Cyrus, Ezra informs us (Ezra 6:2-5), was found in “the palace that is in the province of the Medes,” Achmetha or Ecbatana of the Greeks, which is the only Median city mentioned in Scripture.ETI Media.5


    Mediator — one who intervenes between two persons who are at variance, with a view to reconcile them. This word is not found in the Old Testament; but the idea it expresses is found in Job 9:33, in the word “daysman” (q.v.), marg., “umpire.”ETI Mediator.2

    This word is used in the New Testament to denote simply an internuncius, an ambassador, one who acts as a medium of communication between two contracting parties. In this sense Moses is called a mediator in Galatians 3:19.ETI Mediator.3

    Christ is the one and only mediator between God and man (1 Timothy 2:5; Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24). He makes reconciliation between God and man by his all-perfect atoning sacrifice. Such a mediator must be at once divine and human, divine, that his obedience and his sufferings might possess infinite worth, and that he might possess infinite wisdom and knowlege and power to direct all things in the kingdoms of providence and grace which are committed to his hands (Matthew 28:18; John 5:22, John 5:25, John 5:26, John 5:27); and human, that in his work he might represent man, and be capable of rendering obedience to the law and satisfying the claims of justice (Hebrews 2:17, Hebrews 2:18; Hebrews 4:15, Hebrews 4:16), and that in his glorified humanity he might be the head of a glorified Church (Romans 8:29).ETI Mediator.4

    This office involves the three functions of prophet, priest, and king, all of which are discharged by Christ both in his estate of humiliation and exaltation. These functions are so inherent in the one office that the quality appertaining to each gives character to every mediatorial act. They are never separated in the exercise of the office of mediator.ETI Mediator.5


    Meekness — a calm temper of mind, not easily provoked (James 3:13). Peculiar promises are made to the meek (Matthew 5:5; Isaiah 66:2). The cultivation of this spirit is enjoined (Colossians 3:12; 1 Timothy 6:11; Zephaniah 2:3), and is exemplified in Christ (Matthew 11:29), Abraham (Genesis 13; Genesis 16:5, Genesis 16:6) Moses (Numbers 12:3), David (Zechariah 12:8; 2 Samuel 16:10, 2 Samuel 16:12), and Paul (1 Corinthians 9:19).ETI Meekness.2


    Megiddo — place of troops, originally one of the royal cities of the Canaanites (Joshua 12:21), belonged to the tribe of Manasseh (Judges 1:27), but does not seem to have been fully occupied by the Israelites till the time of Solomon (1 Kings 4:12; 1 Kings 9:15).ETI Megiddo.2

    The valley or plain of Megiddo was part of the plain of Esdraelon, the great battle-field of Palestine. It was here Barak gained a notable victory over Jabin, the king of Hazor, whose general, Sisera, led on the hostile army. Barak rallied the warriors of the northern tribes, and under the encouragement of Deborah (q.v.), the prophetess, attacked the Canaanites in the great plain. The army of Sisera was thrown into complete confusion, and was engulfed in the waters of the Kishon, which had risen and overflowed its banks (Judges 4:5).ETI Megiddo.3

    Many years after this (B.C. 610), Pharaohnecho II., on his march against the king of Assyria, passed through the plains of Philistia and Sharon; and King Josiah, attempting to bar his progress in the plain of Megiddo, was defeated by the Egyptians. He was wounded in battle, and died as they bore him away in his chariot towards Jerusalem (2 Kings 23:29; 2 Chronicles 35:22-24), and all Israel mourned for him. So general and bitter was this mourning that it became a proverb, to which Zechariah (Zechariah 12:11, Zechariah 12:12) alludes. Megiddo has been identified with the modern el-Lejjun, at the head of the Kishon, under the north-eastern brow of Carmel, on the south-western edge of the plain of Esdraelon, and 9 miles west of Jezreel. Others identify it with Mujedd’a, 4 miles south-west of Bethshean, but the question of its site is still undetermined.ETI Megiddo.4


    Mehetabeel — whose benefactor is God, the father of Delaiah, and grandfather of Shemaiah, who joined Sanballat against Nehemiah (Nehemiah 6:10).ETI Mehetabeel.2


    Mehetabel — wife of Hadad, one of the kings of Edom (Genesis 36:39).ETI Mehetabel.2


    Mehujael — smitten by God, the son of Irad, and father of Methusael (Genesis 4:18).ETI Mehujael.2


    Mehuman — faithful, one of the eunchs whom Ahasuerus (Xerxes) commanded to bring in Vashti (Esther 1:10).ETI Mehuman.2


    Mehunims — habitations, (2 Chronicles 26:7; R.V. “Meunim,” Vulg. Ammonitae), a people against whom Uzziah waged a successful war. This word is in Hebrew the plural of Ma’on, and thus denotes the Maonites who inhabited the country on the eastern side of the Wady el-Arabah. They are again mentioned in 1 Chronicles 4:41 (R.V.), in the reign of King Hezekiah, as a Hamite people, settled in the eastern end of the valley of Gedor, in the wilderness south of Palestine. In this passage the Authorized Version has “habitation,” erroneously following the translation of Luther.ETI Mehunims.2

    They are mentioned in the list of those from whom the Nethinim were made up (Ezra 2:50; Nehemiah 7:52).ETI Mehunims.3


    Me-jarkon — waters of yellowness, or clear waters, a river in the tribe of Dan (Joshua 19:46). It has been identified with the river ‘Aujeh, which rises at Antipatris.ETI Me-jarkon.2


    Mekonah — a base or foundation, a town in the south of Judah (Nehemiah 11:28), near Ziklag.ETI Mekonah.2


    Melchi — my king. (1.) The son of Addi, and father of Neri (Luke 3:28). (2.) Luke 3:24.ETI Melchi.2


    Melchizedek — king of righteousness, the king of Salem (q.v.). All we know of him is recorded in Genesis 14:18-20. He is subsequently mentioned only once in the Old Testament, in Psalm 110:4. The typical significance of his history is set forth in detail in the Epistle to the Hebrews, ch. Hebrews 7. The apostle there points out the superiority of his priesthood to that of Aaron in these several respects, (1) Even Abraham paid him tithes; (2) he blessed Abraham; (3) he is the type of a Priest who lives for ever; (4) Levi, yet unborn, paid him tithes in the person of Abraham; (5) the permanence of his priesthood in Christ implied the abrogation of the Levitical system; (6) he was made priest not without an oath; and (7) his priesthood can neither be transmitted nor interrupted by death: “this man, because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood.”ETI Melchizedek.2

    The question as to who this mysterious personage was has given rise to a great deal of modern speculation. It is an old tradition among the Jews that he was Shem, the son of Noah, who may have survived to this time. Melchizedek was a Canaanitish prince, a worshipper of the true God, and in his peculiar history and character an instructive type of our Lord, the great High Priest (Hebrews 5:6, Hebrews 5:7; Hebrews 6:20). One of the Amarna tablets is from Ebed-Tob, king of Jerusalem, the successor of Melchizedek, in which he claims the very attributes and dignity given to Melchizedek in the Epistle to the Hebrews.ETI Melchizedek.3


    Melea — fulness, the son of Menan and father of Eliakim, in the genealogy of our Lord (Luke 3:31).ETI Melea.2


    Melech — king, the second of Micah’s four sons (1 Chronicles 8:35), and thus grandson of Mephibosheth.ETI Melech.2


    Melita — (Acts 27:28), an island in the Mediterranean, the modern Malta. Here the ship in which Paul was being conveyed a prisoner to Rome was wrecked. The bay in which it was wrecked now bears the name of “St. Paul’s Bay”, “a certain creek with a shore.” It is about 2 miles deep and 1 broad, and the whole physical condition of the scene answers the description of the shipwreck given in Acts 28. It was originally colonized by Phoenicians (“barbarians,” Acts 28:2). It came into the possession of the Greeks (B.C. 736), from whom it was taken by the Carthaginians (B.C. 528). In B.C. 242 it was conquered by the Romans, and was governed by a Roman propraetor at the time of the shipwreck (Acts 28:7). Since 1800, when the French garrison surrendered to the English force, it has been a British dependency. The island is about 17 miles long and 9 wide, and about 60 in circumference. After a stay of three months on this island, during which the “barbarians” showed them no little kindness, Julius procured for himself and his company a passage in another Alexandrian corn-ship which had wintered in the island, in which they proceeded on their voyage to Rome (Acts 28:13, Acts 28:14).ETI Melita.2


    Melons — only in Numbers 11:5, the translation of the Hebrew abattihim, the LXX. and Vulgate pepones, Arabic britikh. Of this plant there are various kinds, the Egyptian melon, the Cucumus chate, which has been called “the queen of cucumbers;” the water melon, the Cucurbita citrullus; and the common or flesh melon, the Cucumus melo. “A traveller in the East who recollects the intense gratitude which a gift of a slice of melon inspired while journeying over the hot and dry plains, will readily comprehend the regret with which the Hebrews in the Arabian desert looked back upon the melons of Egypt” (Kitto).ETI Melons.2


    Melzar — probably a Persian word meaning master of wine, i.e., chief butler; the title of an officer at the Babylonian court (Daniel 1:11, Daniel 1:16) who had charge of the diet of the Hebrew youths.ETI Melzar.2


    Memphis — only in Hosea 9:6, Hebrew Moph. In Isaiah 19:13; Jeremiah 2:16; Jeremiah 46:14, Jeremiah 46:19; Ezekiel 30:13, Ezekiel 30:16, it is mentioned under the name Noph. It was the capital of Lower, i.e., of Northern Egypt. From certain remains found half buried in the sand, the site of this ancient city has been discovered near the modern village of Minyet Rahinch, or Mitraheny, about 16 miles above the ancient head of the Delta, and 9 miles south of Cairo, on the west bank of the Nile. It is said to have been founded by Menes, the first king of Egypt, and to have been in circumference about 19 miles. “There are few remains above ground,” says Manning (The Land of the Pharaohs), “of the splendour of ancient Memphis. The city has utterly disappeared. If any traces yet exist, they are buried beneath the vast mounds of crumbling bricks and broken pottery which meet the eye in every direction. Near the village of Mitraheny is a colossal statue of Rameses the Great. It is apparently one of the two described by Herodotus and Diodorus as standing in front of the temple of Ptah. They were originally 50 feet in height. The one which remains, though mutilated, measures 48 feet. It is finely carved in limestone, which takes a high polish, and is evidently a portrait. It lies in a pit, which, during the inundation, is filled with water. As we gaze on this fallen and battered statue of the mighty conqueror who was probably contemporaneous with Moses, it is impossible not to remember the words of the prophet Isaiah, Isaiah 19:13; Isaiah 44:16-19, and Jeremiah, Jeremiah 46:19.”ETI Memphis.2


    Memucan — dignified, one of the royal counsellors at the court of Ahasuerus, by whose suggestion Vashti was divorced (Esther 1:14, Esther 1:16, Esther 1:21).ETI Memucan.2


    Menahem — conforting, the son of Gadi, and successor of Shallum, king of Israel, whom he slew. After a reign of about ten years (B.C. 771-760) he died, leaving the throne to his son Pekahiah. His reign was one of cruelty and oppression (2 Kings 15:14-22). During his reign, Pul (q.v.), king of Assyria, came with a powerful force against Israel, but was induced to retire by a gift from Menahem of 1,000 talents of silver.ETI Menahem.2


    Mene — (Daniel 5:25, Daniel 5:26), numbered, one of the words of the mysterious inscription written “upon the plaister of the wall” in Belshazzar’s palace at Babylon. The writing was explained by Daniel. (See BELSHAZZAR.)ETI Mene.2


    Meni — Isaiah 65:11, marg. (A.V., “that number;” R.V., “destiny”), probably an idol which the captive Israelites worshipped after the example of the Babylonians. It may have been a symbol of destiny. LXX., tuche.ETI Meni.2


    Meonenim — (Judges 9:37; A.V., “the plain of Meonenim;” R.V., “the oak of Meonenim”) means properly “soothsayers” or “sorcerers,” “wizards” (Deuteronomy 18:10, Deuteronomy 18:14; 2 Kings 21:6; Micah 5:12). This may be the oak at Shechem under which Abram pitched his tent (see SHECHEM ), the “enchanter’s oak,” so called, perhaps, from Jacob’s hiding the “strange gods” under it (Genesis 35:4).ETI Meonenim.2


    Mephaath — splendour, a Levitical city (Joshua 21:37) of the tribe of Reuben (Joshua 13:18).ETI Mephaath.2


    Mephibosheth — exterminator of shame; i.e., of idols. (1.) The name of Saul’s son by the concubine Rizpah (q.v.), the daughter of Aiah. He and his brother Armoni were with five others “hanged on a hill before the Lord” by the Gibeonites, and their bodies exposed in the sun for five months (2 Samuel 21:8-10). (2.) The son of Jonathan, and grandson of Saul (2 Samuel 4:4). He was but five years old when his father and grandfather fell on Mount Gilboa. The child’s nurse hearing of this calamity, fled with him from Gibeah, the royal residence, and stumbling in her haste, the child was thrown to the ground and maimed in both his feet, and ever after was unable to walk (2 Samuel 19:26). He was carried to the land of Gilead, where he found a refuge in the house of Machir, the son of Ammiel, at Lo-debar, by whom he was brought up.ETI Mephibosheth.2

    Some years after this, when David had subdued all the adversaries of Israel, he began to think of the family of Jonathan, and discovered that Mephibosheth was residing in the house of Machir. Thither he sent royal messengers, and brought him and his infant son to Jerusalem, where he ever afterwards resided (2 Samuel 9).ETI Mephibosheth.3

    When David was a fugitive, according to the story of Ziba (2 Samuel 16:1-4) Mephibosheth proved unfaithful to him, and was consequently deprived of half of his estates; but according to his own story, however (2 Samuel 19:24-30), he had remained loyal to his friend. After this incident he is only mentioned as having been protected by David against the vengeance the Gibeonites were permitted to execute on the house of Saul (2 Samuel 21:7). He is also called Merib-baal (1 Chronicles 8:34; 1 Chronicles 9:40). (See ZIBA.)ETI Mephibosheth.4


    Merab — increase, the eldest of Saul’s two daughters (1 Samuel 14:49). She was betrothed to David after his victory over Goliath, but does not seem to have entered heartily into this arrangement (1 Samuel 18:2, 1 Samuel 18:17, 1 Samuel 18:19). She was at length, however, married to Adriel of Abel-Meholah, a town in the Jordan valley, about 10 miles south of Bethshean, with whom the house of Saul maintained alliance. She had five sons, who were all put to death by the Gibeonites on the hill of Gibeah (2 Samuel 21:8).ETI Merab.2


    Meraiah — resistance, a chief priest, a contemporary of the high priest Joiakim (Nehemiah 12:12).ETI Meraiah.2


    Meraioth — rebellions. (1.) Father of Amariah, a high priest of the line of Eleazar (1 Chronicles 6:6, 1 Chronicles 6:7, 1 Chronicles 6:52).ETI Meraioth.2

    (2.) Nehemiah 12:15, a priest who went to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel. He is called Meremoth in Nehemiah 12:3.ETI Meraioth.3


    Merari — sad; bitter, the youngest son of Levi, born before the descent of Jacob into Egypt, and one of the seventy who accompanied him thither (Genesis 46:11; Exodus 6:16). He became the head of one of the great divisions of the Levites (Exodus 6:19). (See MERARITES.)ETI Merari.2


    Merarites — the descendants of Merari (Numbers 26:57). They with the Gershonites and the Kohathites had charge of the tabernacle, which they had to carry from place to place (Numbers 3:20, Numbers 3:33-37; Numbers 4:29-33). In the distribution of the oxen and waggons offered by the princes (Numbers 7), Moses gave twice as many to the Merarites (four waggons and eight oxen) as he gave to the Gershonites, because the latter had to carry only the lighter furniture of the tabernacle, such as the curtains, hangings, etc., while the former had to carry the heavier portion, as the boards, bars, sockets, pillars, etc., and consequently needed a greater supply of oxen and waggons. This is a coincidence illustrative of the truth of the narrative. Their place in marching and in the camp was on the north of the tabernacle. The Merarites afterwards took part with the other Levitical families in the various functions of their office (1 Chronicles 23:6, 1 Chronicles 23:21-23; 2 Chronicles 29:12, 2 Chronicles 29:13). Twelve cities with their suburbs were assigned to them (Joshua 21:7, Joshua 21:34-40).ETI Merarites.2


    Merathaim — double rebellion, probably a symbolical name given to Babylon (Jeremiah 50:21), denoting rebellion exceeding that of other nations.ETI Merathaim.2


    Merchant — The Hebrew word so rendered is from a root meaning “to travel about,” “to migrate,” and hence “a traveller.” In the East, in ancient times, merchants travelled about with their merchandise from place to place (Genesis 37:25; Job 6:18), and carried on their trade mainly by bartering (Genesis 37:28; Genesis 39:1). After the Hebrews became settled in Palestine they began to engage in commercial pursuits, which gradually expanded (Genesis 49:13; Deuteronomy 33:18; Judges 5:17), till in the time of Solomon they are found in the chief marts of the world (1 Kings 9:26; 1 Kings 10:11, 1 Kings 10:26, 1 Kings 10:28; 1 Kings 22:48; 2 Chronicles 1:16; 2 Chronicles 9:10, 2 Chronicles 9:21). After Solomon’s time their trade with foreign nations began to decline. After the Exile it again expanded into wider foreign relations, because now the Jews were scattered in many lands.ETI Merchant.2


    Mercurius — the Hermes (i.e., “the speaker”) of the Greeks (Acts 14:12), a heathen God represented as the constant attendant of Jupiter, and the god of eloquence. The inhabitants of Lystra took Paul for this god because he was the “chief speaker.”ETI Mercurius.2


    Mercy — compassion for the miserable. Its object is misery. By the atoning sacrifice of Christ a way is open for the exercise of mercy towards the sons of men, in harmony with the demands of truth and righteousness (Genesis 19:19; Exodus 20:6; Exodus 34:6, Exodus 34:7; Psalm 85:10; Psalm 86:15, Psalm 86:16). In Christ mercy and truth meet together. Mercy is also a Christian grace (Matthew 5:7; Matthew 18:33-35).ETI Mercy.2


    Mercy-seat — (Heb. kapporeth, a “covering;” LXX. and N.T., hilasterion; Vulg., propitiatorium), the covering or lid of the ark of the covenant (q.v.). It was of acacia wood, overlaid with gold, or perhaps rather a plate of solid gold, 2 1/2 cubits long and 1 1/2 broad (Exodus 25:17; Exodus 30:6; Exodus 31:7). It is compared to the throne of grace (Hebrews 9:5; Ephesians 2:6). The holy of holies is called the “place of the mercy-seat” (1 Chronicles 28:11: Leviticus 16:2).ETI Mercy-seat.2

    It has been conjectured that the censer (thumiaterion, meaning “anything having regard to or employed in the burning of incense”) mentioned in Hebrews 9:4 was the “mercy-seat,” at which the incense was burned by the high priest on the great day of atonement, and upon or toward which the blood of the goat was sprinkled (Leviticus 16:11-16; comp. Numbers 7:89 and Exodus 25:22).ETI Mercy-seat.3


    Mered — rebellion, one of the sons of Ezra, of the tribe of Judah (1 Chronicles 4:17).ETI Mered.2


    Meremoth — exaltations, heights, a priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:3), to whom were sent the sacred vessels (Ezra 8:33) belonging to the temple. He took part in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 3:4).ETI Meremoth.2


    Meribah — quarrel or strife. (1.) One of the names given by Moses to the fountain in the desert of Sin, near Rephidim, which issued from the rock in Horeb, which he smote by the divine command, “because of the chiding of the children of Israel” (Exodus 17:1-7). It was also called Massah (q.v.). It was probably in Wady Feiran, near Mount Serbal.ETI Meribah.2

    (2.) Another fountain having a similar origin in the desert of Zin, near to Kadesh (Numbers 27:14). The two places are mentioned together in Deuteronomy 33:8. Some think the one place is called by the two names (Psalm 81:7). In smiting the rock at this place Moses showed the same impatience as the people (Numbers 20:10-12). This took place near the close of the wanderings in the desert (Numbers 20:1-24; Deuteronomy 32:51).ETI Meribah.3


    Merib-baal — contender with Baal, (1 Chronicles 8:34; 1 Chronicles 9:40), elsewhere called Mephibosheth (2 Samuel 4:4), the son of Jonathan.ETI Merib-baal.2


    Merodach — death; slaughter, the name of a Babylonian god, probably the planet Mars (Jeremiah 50:2), or it may be another name of Bel, the guardian divinity of Babylon. This name frequently occurs as a surname to the kings of Assyria and Babylon.ETI Merodach.2


    Merodach-baladan — Merodach has given a son, (Isaiah 39:1), “the hereditary chief of the Chaldeans, a small tribe at that time settled in the marshes at the mouth of the Euphrates, but in consequence of his conquest of Babylon afterwards, they became the dominant caste in Babylonia itself.” One bearing this name sent ambassadors to Hezekiah (B.C. 721). He is also called Berodach-baladan (2 Kings 20:12; 2 Chronicles 20:31). (See HEZEKIAH.)ETI Merodach-baladan.2


    Merom — height, a lake in Northern Palestine through which the Jordan flows. It was the scene of the third and last great victory gained by Joshua over the Canaanites (Joshua 11:5-7). It is not again mentioned in Scripture. Its modern name is Bakrat el-Huleh. “The Ard el-Huleh, the centre of which the lake occupies, is a nearly level plain of 16 miles in length from north to south, and its breadth from east to west is from 7 to 8 miles. On the west it is walled in by the steep and lofty range of the hills of Kedesh-Naphtali; on the east it is bounded by the lower and more gradually ascending slopes of Bashan; on the north it is shut in by a line of hills hummocky and irregular in shape and of no great height, and stretching across from the mountains of Naphtali to the roots of Mount Hermon, which towers up at the north-eastern angle of the plain to a height of 10,000 feet. At its southern extremity the plain is similarly traversed by elevated and broken ground, through which, by deep and narrow clefts, the Jordan, after passing through Lake Huleh, makes its rapid descent to the Sea of Galilee.”ETI Merom.2

    The lake is triangular in form, about 4 1/2 miles in length by 3 1/2 at its greatest breadth. Its surface is 7 feet above that of the Mediterranean. It is surrounded by a morass, which is thickly covered with canes and papyrus reeds, which are impenetrable. Macgregor with his canoe, the Rob Roy, was the first that ever, in modern times, sailed on its waters. (See JORDAN.)ETI Merom.3


    Meronothite — a name given to Jehdeiah, the herdsman of the royal asses in the time of David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:30), probably as one being a native of some unknown town called Meronoth.ETI Meronothite.2


    Meroz — a plain in the north of Palestine, the inhabitants of which were severely condemned because they came not to help Barak against Sisera (Judges 5:23: comp. Judges 21:8-10; 1 Samuel 11:7). It has been identified with Marassus, on a knoll to the north of Wady Jalud, but nothing certainly is known of it. Like Chorazin, it is only mentioned in Scripture in connection with the curse pronounced upon it.ETI Meroz.2


    Mesha — middle district, Vulgate, Messa. (1.) A plain in that part of the boundaries of Arabia inhabited by the descendants of Joktan (Genesis 10:30).ETI Mesha.2

    (2.) Heb. meysh’a, “deliverance,” the eldest son of Caleb (1 Chronicles 2:42), and brother of Jerahmeel.ETI Mesha.3

    (3.) Heb. id, a king of Moab, the son of Chemosh-Gad, a man of great wealth in flocks and herds (2 Kings 3:4). After the death of Ahab at Ramoth-Gilead, Mesha shook off the yoke of Israel; but on the ascension of Jehoram to the throne of Israel, that king sought the help of Jehoshaphat in an attempt to reduce the Moabites again to their former condition. The united armies of the two kings came unexpectedly on the army of the Moabites, and gained over them an easy victory. The whole land was devastated by the conquering armies, and Mesha sought refuge in his last stronghold, Kir-harasheth (q.v.). Reduced to despair, he ascended the wall of the city, and there, in the sight of the allied armies, offered his first-born son a sacrifice to Chemosh, the fire-god of the Moabites. This fearful spectacle filled the beholders with horror, and they retired from before the besieged city, and recrossed the Jordan laden with spoil (2 Kings 3:25-27).ETI Mesha.4

    The exploits of Mesha are recorded in the Phoenician inscription on a block of black basalt found at Dibon, in Moab, usually called the “Moabite stone” (q.v.).ETI Mesha.5


    Meshach — the title given to Mishael, one of the three Hebrew youths who were under training at the Babylonian court for the rank of Magi (Daniel 1:7; Daniel 2:49; Daniel 3:12-30). This was probably the name of some Chaldean god.ETI Meshach.2


    Meshech — drawing out, the sixth son of Japheth (Genesis 10:2), the founder of a tribe (1 Chronicles 1:5; Ezekiel 27:13; Ezekiel 38:2,3). They were in all probability the Moschi, a people inhabiting the Moschian Mountains, between the Black and the Caspian Seas. In Psalm 120:5 the name occurs as simply a synonym for foreigners or barbarians. “During the ascendency of the Babylonians and Persians in Western Asia, the Moschi were subdued; but it seems probable that a large number of them crossed the Caucasus range and spread over the northern steppes, mingling with the Scythians. There they became known as Muscovs, and gave that name to the Russian nation and its ancient capital by which they are still generally known throughout the East”ETI Meshech.2


    Meshelemiah — friendship of Jehovah, a Levite of the family of the Korhites, called also Shelemiah (1 Chronicles 9:21; 1 Chronicles 26:1, 1 Chronicles 26:2, 1 Chronicles 26:9, 1 Chronicles 26:14). He was a temple gate-keeper in the time of David.ETI Meshelemiah.2


    Meshillemoth — requitals. (1.) The father of Berechiah (2 Chronicles 28:12).ETI Meshillemoth.2

    (2.) A priest, the son of Immer (Nehemiah 11:13).ETI Meshillemoth.3


    Meshullam — befriended. (1.) One of the chief Gadites in Bashan in the time of Jotham (1 Chronicles 5:13).ETI Meshullam.2

    (2.) Grandfather of Shaphan, “the scribe,” in the reign of Josiah (2 Kings 22:3).ETI Meshullam.3

    (3.) A priest, father of Hilkiah (1 Chronicles 9:11; Nehemiah 11:11), in the reign of Ammon; called Shallum in 1 Chronicles 6:12.ETI Meshullam.4

    (4.) A Levite of the family of Kohath (2 Chronicles 34:12), in the reign of Josiah.ETI Meshullam.5

    (5.) 1 Chronicles 8:17.ETI Meshullam.6

    (6.) 1 Chronicles 3:19.ETI Meshullam.7

    (7.) Nehemiah 12:13.ETI Meshullam.8

    (8.) A chief priest (Nehemiah 12:16).ETI Meshullam.9

    (9.) One of the leading Levites in the time of Ezra (Ezra 8:16).ETI Meshullam.10

    (10.) A priest (1 Chronicles 9:12).ETI Meshullam.11

    (11.) One of the principal Israelites who supported Ezra when expounding the law to the people (Nehemiah 8:4).ETI Meshullam.12


    Meshullemeth — friend, the wife of Manasseh, and the mother of Amon (2 Kings 21:19), Kings of Judah.ETI Meshullemeth.2


    Mesopotamia — the country between the two rivers (Heb. Aram-naharaim; i.e., “Syria of the two rivers”), the name given by the Greeks and Romans to the region between the Euphrates and the Tigris (Genesis 24:10; Deuteronomy 23:4; Judges 3:8, Judges 3:10). In the Old Testament it is mentioned also under the name “Padan-aram;” i.e., the plain of Aram, or Syria (Genesis 25:20). The northern portion of this fertile plateau was the original home of the ancestors of the Hebrews (Genesis 11; Acts 7:2). From this region Isaac obtained his wife Rebecca (Genesis 24:10, Genesis 24:15), and here also Jacob sojourned (Genesis 28:2-7) and obtained his wives, and here most of his sons were born (Genesis 35:26; Genesis 46:15). The petty, independent tribes of this region, each under its own prince, were warlike, and used chariots in battle. They maintained their independence till after the time of David, when they fell under the dominion of Assyria, and were absorbed into the empire (2 Kings 19:13).ETI Mesopotamia.2


    Mess — a portion of food given to a guest (Genesis 43:34; 2 Samuel 11:8).ETI Mess.2


    Messenger — (Heb. mal˒ak, Gr. angelos), an angel, a messenger who runs on foot, the bearer of despatches (Job 1:14; 1 Samuel 11:7; 2 Chronicles 36:22); swift of foot (2 Kings 9:18).ETI Messenger.2


    Messiah — (Heb. mashiah, in all the thirty-nine instances of its occurring in the Old Testament, is rendered by the LXX. “Christos.” It means anointed. Thus priests (Exodus 28:41; Exodus 40:15; Numbers 3:3), prophets (1 Kings 19:16), and kings (1 Samuel 9:16; 1 Samuel 16:3; 2 Samuel 12:7) were anointed with oil, and so consecrated to their respective offices. The great Messiah is anointed “above his fellows” (Psalm 45:7); i.e., he embraces in himself all the three offices. The Greek form “Messias” is only twice used in the New Testament, in John 1:41 and John 4:25 (R.V., “Messiah”), and in the Old Testament the word Messiah, as the rendering of the Hebrew, occurs only twice (Daniel 9:25, Daniel 9:26; R.V., “the anointed one”).ETI Messiah.2

    The first great promise (Genesis 3:15) contains in it the germ of all the prophecies recorded in the Old Testament regarding the coming of the Messiah and the great work he was to accomplish on earth. The prophecies became more definite and fuller as the ages rolled on; the light shone more and more unto the perfect day. Different periods of prophetic revelation have been pointed out, (1) the patriarchal; (2) the Mosaic; (3) the period of David; (4) the period of prophetism, i.e., of those prophets whose works form a part of the Old Testament canon. The expectations of the Jews were thus kept alive from generation to generation, till the “fulness of the times,” when Messiah came, “made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law.” In him all these ancient prophecies have their fulfilment. Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah, the great Deliverer who was to come. (Comp. Matthew 26:54; Mark 9:12; Luke 18:31; Luke 22:37; John 5:39; Acts 2; Acts 16:31; Acts 26:22, Acts 26:23.)ETI Messiah.3


    Metheg-ammah — bridle of the mother, a figurative name for a chief city, as in 2 Samuel 8:1, “David took Metheg-ammah out of the hand of the Philistines” (R.V., “took the bridle of the mother-city”); i.e., subdued their capital or strongest city, viz., Gath (1 Chronicles 18:1).ETI Metheg-ammah.2


    Methusael — champion of El; man of God, a descendant of Cain (Genesis 4:18), so called, perhaps, to denote that even among the descendants of Cain God had not left himself without a witness.ETI Methusael.2


    Methuselah — man of the dart, the son of Enoch, and grandfather of Noah. He was the oldest man of whom we have any record, dying at the age of nine hundred and sixty-nine years, in the year of the Flood (Genesis 5:21-27; 1 Chronicles 1:3).ETI Methuselah.2


    Mezahab — water of gold, the father of Matred (Genesis 36:39; 1 Chronicles 1:50), and grandfather of Mehetabel, wife of Hadar, the last king of Edom.ETI Mezahab.2


    Miamin — =Mijamin, from the right hand. (1.) The head of one of the divisions of the priests (1 Chronicles 24:9).ETI Miamin.2

    (2.) A chief priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:5), called Mijamin (Nehemiah 10:7) and Miniamin (Nehemiah 12:17).ETI Miamin.3


    Mibhar — choice, a Hagarene, one of David’s warriors (1 Chronicles 11:38); called also Bani the Gadite (2 Samuel 23:36).ETI Mibhar.2


    Mibsam — fragrance. (1.) One of Ishmael’s twelve sons, and head of an Arab tribe (Genesis 25:13).ETI Mibsam.2

    (2.) A son of Simeon (1 Chronicles 4:25).ETI Mibsam.3


    Mibzar — fortress, one of the Edomitish “dukes” descended from Esau (Genesis 36:42; 1 Chronicles 1:53).ETI Mibzar.2


    Micah — a shortened form of Micaiah, who is like Jehovah? (1.) A man of Mount Ephraim, whose history so far is introduced in Judges 17, apparently for the purpose of leading to an account of the settlement of the tribe of Dan in Northern Palestine, and for the purpose also of illustrating the lawlessness of the times in which he lived (Judges 18; Judges 19:1-29; Judges 21:25).ETI Micah.2

    (2.) The son of Merib-baal (Mephibosheth), 1 Chronicles 8:34, 1 Chronicles 8:35.ETI Micah.3

    (3.) The first in rank of the priests of the family of Kohathites (1 Chronicles 23:20).ETI Micah.4

    (4.) A descendant of Joel the Reubenite (1 Chronicles 5:5).ETI Micah.5

    (5.) “The Morasthite,” so called to distinguish him from Micaiah, the son of Imlah (1 Kings 22:8). He was a prophet of Judah, a contemporary of Isaiah (Micah 1:1), a native of Moresheth of Gath (Micah 1:14, Micah 1:15). Very little is known of the circumstances of his life (comp. Jeremiah 26:18, Jeremiah 26:19).ETI Micah.6

    Micah, Book of

    Micah, Book of — the sixth in order of the so-called minor prophets. The superscription to this book states that the prophet exercised his office in the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. If we reckon from the beginning of Jotham’s reign to the end of Hezekiah’s (B.C. 759-698), then he ministered for about fifty-nine years; but if we reckon from the death of Jotham to the accession of Hezekiah (B.C. 743-726), his ministry lasted only sixteen years. It has been noticed as remarkable that this book commences with the last words of another prophet, “Micaiah the son of Imlah” (1 Kings 22:28): “Hearken, O people, every one of you.”ETI Micah, Book of.2

    The book consists of three sections, each commencing with a rebuke, “Hear ye,” etc., and closing with a promise, (1) ch. Micah 1; Micah 2; (2) ch. Micah 3-5, especially addressed to the princes and heads of the people; (3) ch. Micah 6-7, in which Jehovah is represented as holding a controversy with his people: the whole concluding with a song of triumph at the great deliverance which the Lord will achieve for his people. The closing verse is quoted in the song of Zacharias (Luke 1:72, Luke 1:73). The prediction regarding the place “where Christ should be born,” one of the most remarkable Messianic prophecies (Micah 5:2), is quoted in Matthew 2:6.ETI Micah, Book of.3

    There are the following references to this book in the New Testament:ETI Micah, Book of.4

    Micah 5:2, with Matthew 2:6; John 7:42. Micah 7:6, with Matthew 10:21,Matthew 10:35,Matthew 10:36. Micah 7:20, with Luke 1:72,Luke 1:73.ETI Micah, Book of.5


    Micaiah — who is like Jehovah?, the son of Imlah, a faithful prophet of Samaria (1 Kings 22:8-28). Three years after the great battle with Ben-hadad (1 Kings 20:29-34), Ahab proposed to Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, that they should go up against Ramoth-Gilead to do battle again with Ben-hadad. Jehoshaphat agreed, but suggested that inquiry should be first made “at the word of Jehovah.” Ahab’s prophets approved of the expedition; but Jehoshaphat, still dissatisfied, asked if there was no other prophet besides the four hundred that had appeared, and was informed of this Micaiah. He was sent for from prison, where he had been confined, probably on account of some prediction disagreeable to Ahab; and he condemned the expedition, and prophesied that it would end, as it did, in disaster. We hear nothing further of this prophet. Some have supposed that he was the unnamed prophet referred to in 1 Kings 20:35-42.ETI Micaiah.2


    Micha — (1.) 2 Samuel 9:12 =MICAH (2).ETI Micha.2

    (2.) The son of Zabdi, a Levite of the family of Asaph (Nehemiah 11:17, Nehemiah 11:22).ETI Micha.3


    Michael — who is like God? (1.) The title given to one of the chief angels (Daniel 10:13, Daniel 10:21; Daniel 12:1). He had special charge of Israel as a nation. He disputed with Satan (Jude 9) about the body of Moses. He is also represented as warning against “that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world” (Revelation 12:7-9).ETI Michael.2

    (2.) The father of Sethur, the spy selected to represent Asher (Numbers 13:13).ETI Michael.3

    (3.) 1 Chronicles 7:3, a chief of the tribe of Issachar.ETI Michael.4

    (4.) 1 Chronicles 8:16, a Benjamite.ETI Michael.5

    (5.) A chief Gadite in Bashan (1 Chronicles 5:13).ETI Michael.6

    (6.) A Manassite, “a captain of thousands” who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:20).ETI Michael.7

    (7.) A Gershonite Levite (1 Chronicles 6:40).ETI Michael.8

    (8.) The father of Omri (1 Chronicles 27:18).ETI Michael.9

    (9.) One of the sons of king Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 21:2, 2 Chronicles 21:4). He was murdered by his brother Jehoram.ETI Michael.10


    Michaiah — (1.) The queen-mother of King Abijah (2 Chronicles 13:2). (See MAACAH [4]).ETI Michaiah.2

    (2.) One of those sent out by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people in the law (2 Chronicles 17:7).ETI Michaiah.3

    (3.) 2 Kings 22:12.ETI Michaiah.4

    (4.) The son of Gemariah. He reported to the king’s officers Jeremiah’s prediction, which he had heard Baruch read (Jeremiah 36:11, Jeremiah 36:13) from his father Gemariah’s chamber in the temple.ETI Michaiah.5

    (5.) A Levite (Nehemiah 12:35).ETI Michaiah.6

    (6.) A priest (Nehemiah 12:41).ETI Michaiah.7


    Michal — rivulet, or who as God?, the younger of Saul’s two daughters by his wife Ahinoam (1 Samuel 14:49, 1 Samuel 14:50). “Attracted by the graces of his person and the gallantry of his conduct, she fell in love with David and became his wife” (1 Samuel 18:20-28). She showed her affection for him by promoting his escape to Naioth when Saul sought his life (1 Samuel 19:12-17. Comp. Psalm 59. See TERAPHIM ). After this she did not see David for many years. Meanwhile she was given in marriage to another man, Phalti or Phaltiel of Gallim (1 Samuel 25:44), but David afterwards formally reclaimed her as his lawful wife (2 Samuel 3:13-16). The relation between her and David soon after this was altered. They became alienated from each other. This happened on that memorable day when the ark was brought up in great triumph from its temporary resting-place to the Holy City. In David’s conduct on that occasion she saw nothing but a needless humiliation of the royal dignity (1 Chronicles 15:29). She remained childless, and thus the races of David and Saul were not mixed. In 2 Samuel 21:8 her name again occurs, but the name Merab should probably be here substituted for Michal (comp. 1 Samuel 18:19).ETI Michal.2


    Michmash — something hidden, a town of Benjamin (Ezra 2:27), east of Bethel and south of Migron, on the road to Jerusalem (Isaiah 10:28). It lay on the line of march of an invading army from the north, on the north side of the steep and precipitous Wady es-Suweinit (“valley of the little thorn-tree” or “the acacia”), and now bears the name of Mukhmas. This wady is called “the passage of Michmash” (1 Samuel 13:23). Immediately facing Mukhmas, on the opposite side of the ravine, is the modern representative of Geba, and behind this again are Ramah and Gibeah.ETI Michmash.2

    This was the scene of a great battle fought between the army of Saul and the Philistines, who were utterly routed and pursued for some 16 miles towards Philistia as far as the valley of Aijalon. “The freedom of Benjamin secured at Michmash led through long years of conflict to the freedom of all its kindred tribes.” The power of Benjamin and its king now steadily increased. A new spirit and a new hope were now at work in Israel. (See SAUL.)ETI Michmash.3


    Michmethah — hiding-place, a town in the northern border of Ephraim and Manasseh, and not far west of Jordan (Joshua 16:6; Joshua 17:7).ETI Michmethah.2


    Michri — prize of Jehovah, a Benjamite, the father of Uzzi (1 Chronicles 9:8).ETI Michri.2


    Michtam — writing; i.e., a poem or song found in the titles of Psalm 16; Psalm 56-60. Some translate the word “golden”, i.e., precious. It is rendered in the LXX. by a word meaning “tablet inscription” or a “stelograph.” The root of the word means to stamp or grave, and hence it is regarded as denoting a composition so precious as to be worthy to be engraven on a durable tablet for preservation; or, as others render, “a psalm precious as stamped gold,” from the word kethem, “fine or stamped gold.”ETI Michtam.2


    Middin — measures, one of the six cities “in the wilderness,” on the west of the Dead Sea, mentioned along with En-gedi (Joshua 15:61).ETI Middin.2


    Midian — strife, the fourth son of Abraham by Keturah, the father of the Midianites (Genesis 25:2; 1 Chronicles 1:32).ETI Midian.2


    Midianite — an Arabian tribe descended from Midian. They inhabited principally the desert north of the peninsula of Arabia. The peninsula of Sinai was the pasture-ground for their flocks. They were virtually the rulers of Arabia, being the dominant tribe. Like all Arabians, they were a nomad people. They early engaged in commercial pursuits. It was to one of their caravans that Joseph was sold (Genesis 37:28, Genesis 37:36). The next notice of them is in connection with Moses’ flight from Egypt (Exodus 2:15-21). Here in Midian Moses became the servant and afterwards the son-in-law of Reuel or Jethro, the priest. After the Exodus, the Midianites were friendly to the Israelites so long as they traversed only their outlying pasture-ground on the west of the Arabah; but when, having passed the southern end of Edom, they entered into the land of Midian proper, they joined with Balak, the king of Moab, in a conspiracy against them (Numbers 22:4-7). Balaam, who had been sent for to curse Israel, having utterly failed to do so, was dismissed by the king of Moab; nevertheless he still tarried among the Midianites, and induced them to enter into correspondence with the Israelites, so as to bring them into association with them in the licentious orgies connected with the worship of Baal-Peor. This crafty counsel prevailed. The Israelites took part in the heathen festival, and so brought upon themselves a curse indeed. Their apostasy brought upon them a severe punishment. A plague broke out amongst them, and more than twenty-four thousand of the people perished (Numbers 25:9). But the Midianites were not to be left unpunished. A terrible vengeance was denounced against them. A thousand warriors from each tribe, under the leadership of Phinehas, went forth against them. The Midianites were utterly routed. Their cities were consumed by fire, five of their kings were put to death, and the whole nation was destroyed (Joshua 13:21, Joshua 13:22). Balaam also perished by the sword, receiving the “wages of his unrighteousness” (Numbers 31:8; 2 Peter 2:15). The whole of the country on the east of Jordan, now conquered by the Israelites (see SIHON ; OG), was divided between the two tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh.ETI Midianite.2

    Some two hundred and fifty years after this the Midianites had regained their ancient power, and in confederation with the Amalekites and the “children of the east” they made war against their old enemies the Israelites, whom for seven years they oppressed and held in subjection. They were at length assailed by Gideon in that ever-memorable battle in the great plain of Esdraelon, and utterly destroyed (Judges 6:1-ch. Judges 7). Frequent allusions are afterwards made to this great victory (Psalm 83:10, Psalm 83:12; Isaiah 9:4; Isaiah 10:6). They now wholly pass away from the page of history both sacred and profane.ETI Midianite.3


    Midwife — The two midwives mentioned in Exodus 1:15 were probably the superintendents of the whole class.ETI Midwife.2


    Migdal-Edar — tower of the flock, a place 2 miles south of Jerusalem, near the Bethlehem road (Genesis 35:21). (See EDAR.)ETI Migdal-Edar.2


    Migdal-el — tower of God, a fortified city of Naphtali (Joshua 19:38), supposed by some to be identical with Magdala (q.v.).ETI Migdal-el.2


    Migdal-gad — tower of fortune, a town in the plains of Judah, probably the modern el-Mejdel, a little to the north-east of Ascalon (Joshua 15:37).ETI Migdal-gad.2


    Migdol — tower. (1.) A strongly-fortified place 12 miles from Pelusium, in the north of Egypt (Jeremiah 44:1; Jeremiah 46:14). This word is rendered “tower” in Ezekiel 29:10, but the margin correctly retains the name Migdol, “from Migdol to Syene;” i.e., from Migdol in the north to Syene in the south, in other words, the whole of Egypt.ETI Migdol.2

    (2.) A place mentioned in the passage of the Red Sea (Exodus 14:2; Numbers 33:7, Numbers 33:8). It is probably to be identified with Bir Suweis, about 2 miles from Suez.ETI Migdol.3


    Migron — precipice or landslip, a place between Aiath and Michmash (Isaiah 10:28). The town of the same name mentioned in 1 Samuel 14:2 was to the south of this.ETI Migron.2


    Mikloth — staves. (1.) An officer under Dodai, in the time of David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:4).ETI Mikloth.2

    (2.) A Benjamite (1 Chronicles 8:32; 1 Chronicles 9:37, 1 Chronicles 9:38).ETI Mikloth.3

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